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Today's Headlines - 21 October 2023

Israel – Palestine Conflict 

GS Paper – II (International Relation)


Recently, Israel bombarded the Gaza Strip hitting areas where Palestinians had been told to seek safety.

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Historical Background:

  • The Israeli-Palestinian conflict has its roots in the late 19th century when Jews fleeing anti-Semitism in Russia and central Europe began emigrating to Palestine.
  • In 1917, during World War I, the British captured Palestine from the Ottomans and, in the Balfour Declaration of November 2, promised the Jews a "national home" there.
  • Palestine split:
    • Palestine was partitioned into Jewish and Arab states under United Nations Resolution 181, approved in November 1947. Jerusalem is put under international control.
    • In the split, the West Bank including east Jerusalem went to Jordan and the Gaza Strip to Egypt.
    • The state of Israel was finally created on May 14, 1948, provoking an eight-month war with Arab states.
    • The Palestine Liberation Organisation (PLO) was created in 1964.
  • Occupation and war:
    • In the Six-Day War in June 1967, Israel defeated Egypt, Jordan, and Syria and occupied east Jerusalem, the West Bank, the Gaza Strip, and the Golan Heights.
    • Jewish settlement of the occupied territories started shortly afterward and continues in the West Bank, east Jerusalem, and the Golan Heights today.
    • Arab states attacked Israel on October 6, 1973, the Jewish holy day of Yom Kippur. Israel repelled the attack.
    • Israel invaded civil war-wracked Lebanon on June 6, 1982, to attack Palestinian militants after initially sending in its forces in 1978.
    • The first intifada, or Palestinian uprising against Israeli rule, raged from 1987 to 1993.
  • Peace process:
    • In 1993, Israel and the PLO signed a declaration on principles for Palestinian autonomy after six months of secret negotiations in Oslo, launching an abortive peace process.
    • PLO leader Yasser Arafat returned to Gaza in July 1994 to create the Palestinian Authority. Self-rule was established for the first time in the Gaza Strip and the West Bank town of Jericho.
    • In September 2000, right-wing Israeli opposition leader and future prime minister Ariel Sharon visited the Al-Aqsa mosque compound in east Jerusalem, a site holy to Muslims and Jews, who referred to it as the Temple Mount, sparking the first clashes of the second intifada.
    • Responding to a wave of suicide bombings, Israel 2002 invaded the West Bank in its largest operation there since the 1967 war.
    • Moderate Mahmud Abbas took over the leadership of the Palestinian Authority in January 2005, after the death of Arafat.
    • The last Israeli forces left Gaza after a 38-year occupation in September 2005.
Two-state solution
•    Two-state solution, proposed framework for resolving the Israeli-Palestinian conflict by establishing two states for two peoples: Israel for the Jewish people and Palestine for the Palestinian people. 
•    In 1993 the Israeli government and the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) agreed on a plan to implement a two-state solution as part of the Oslo Accords, leading to the establishment of the Palestinian Authority (PA).

Harakat al-Muqawamah al-Islamiyyah (the Islamic Resistance Movement) - in short, Hamas:

  • The roots of Hamas go back to the Muslim Brotherhood. The Brotherhood, established by Egyptian Islamist Hasan al-Banna in 1928, made a presence in the British-ruled Palestine in the 1930s.
  • Hamas was established after the first intifada broke out in 1987. On December 8, 1987, several Palestinians were killed in a traffic incident in Gaza, involving an Israeli driver, leading to a wave of protests.
  • When the PLO moved to join peace efforts seeking a solution to the Palestinian issue, Hamas hardened its position. It opposed the Oslo Agreement, which allowed the formation of the Palestinian Authority with limited powers within the occupied territories. When the PLO recognized Israel, Hamas rejected the two-state solution
  • In the 2006 legislative elections in the Palestinian territory -
    • Hamas won 74 out of the 132 seats, while the Fatah party, the PLO’s backbone, got only 45 seats.
    • In its election manifesto, Hamas showed, for the first time, signs of moderation. It dropped the call for the destruction of Israel, which was mentioned in the 1988 charter.
    • Hamas formed the government, but faced opposition from Israel and most international powers. Like Israel, the U.S. and several European countries have designated Hamas as a terrorist organization.
    • As tensions rose between Fatah and Hamas in the West Bank, Palestinian Authority President Mahmoud Abbas dissolved the Hamas government and declared a state of emergency.
    • This led to violent clashes between Fatah and Hamas. Fatah ousted Hamas from the West Bank and Hamas ousted the former from Gaza in 2007. Since then, Hamas is the government in Gaza.
    • Following Hamas’s capture of Gaza, Israel has imposed a blockade on the strip, which practically turned the territory into an open prison.

Gandhi’s position on Israel – Palestine

  • “Palestine belongs to the Arabs in the same sense that England belongs to the English, or France to the French,” Mahatma Gandhi wrote in Harijan on November 26, 1938.
  • His opposition to the creation of a Zionist state in Palestine was based on two principal beliefs:
  • First, that Palestine was already home to Arab Palestinians, and the settlement of Jews, which Britain actively enabled, was fundamentally violent.
  • Second, Gandhi felt that the idea of a Jewish homeland was fundamentally antithetical towards their fight for greater rights elsewhere in the world.
  • Gandhi’s opinions, and his own anti-imperialism had a profound impact on Jawaharlal Nehru, and was responsible for shaping the nascent country’s foreign policy for decades.
  • India voted against UN Resolution 181 which partitioned Palestine between Jews and Arabs.

India’s stance on the Israel – Palestine conflict:

  • India’s policy has gone from being unequivocally pro-Palestine for the first four decades, to a tense balancing act with its three-decade-old friendly ties with Israel.
  • Before 1990:
    • In 1948, India was the only non-Arab-state among 13 countries that voted against the UN partition plan of Palestine in the General Assembly which led to the creation of Israel.
    • The relationship with Palestine was almost an article of faith in Indian foreign policy for over four decades. In the 1967 and 1973 wars, India lashed out at Israel as the aggressor.
    • In 1975, India became the first non-Arab country to recognize the PLO as the sole representative of the Palestinian people and invited it to open an office in Delhi, which was accorded diplomatic status five years later.
    • In 1988, when the PLO declared an independent state of Palestine with its capital in East Jerusalem, India granted recognition immediately.
    • India opened a Representative Office in Gaza, which later moved to Ramallah as the Palestinian movement split between Hamas (which gained control of Gaza) and the PLO.

Israel’s Iron-Dome

  • Iron Dome is a multi-mission system capable of intercepting rockets, artillery, mortars and Precision Guided Munitions like very short-range air defence (V-SHORAD) systems as well as aircraft, helicopters and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) over short ranges of up to 70 km.
  • It is an all-weather system and can engage multiple targets simultaneously and be deployed over land and sea.
  • However, the system can see limitations when it is overwhelmed with a barrage of projectiles. It is capable of engaging a certain (unpublished) number of targets at the same time, and no more.
  • From 1992 to 2014:
    • The balancing began with India’s decision to normalize ties with Israel in 1992, which came against the backdrop of the break-up of the Soviet Union, and massive shifts in the geopolitics of West Asia on account of the first Gulf War in 1990. That year, the Palestinian Liberation defence Organisation (PLO) lost much of its clout in the Arab world by siding with Iraq and Saddam Hussein in the occupation of Kuwait.
    • For two-and-a-half decades from 1992, the India-Israel relationship continued to grow, mostly through defence deals, and in sectors such as science and technology and agriculture. But India never acknowledged the relationship fully.
    • India voted in favour of the UN General Assembly resolution in October 2003 against Israel’s construction of a separation wall. It voted for Palestine to become a full member of UNESCO in 2011, and a year later, co-sponsored the UN General Assembly resolution that enabled Palestine to become a “non-member” observer state at the UN without voting rights.
  • After 2014:
    • The Indian government decided to take full ownership of the relationship with Israel. The first indication of the new phase came with an abstention by India at the UN Human Rights Council on a resolution welcoming a report by the HRC High Commissioner. The report said it had evidence of alleged war crimes committed by Israeli forces and Hamas during the 2014 airstrikes against Gaza that killed over 2000.
    • In 2016, India abstained again at on a UNHRC resolution against Israel. But the big change was the status of the historic city that both Israel and Palestine claim.


Israel-Palestine conflict is deeply entrenched, and achieving a lasting solution will require the commitment, flexibility, and goodwill of both parties, as well as the support of the international community. Many previous attempts at peace have failed, and finding a solution will be a long and challenging process. Further, the recent attack of Hamas has complicated the two-state solution. Thus, given the power imbalance between Israel and the rest of the Arab world, the best way for Palestine is to convince the Israeli voters that Palestine will live peaceably next to Israel.


  1. The term "two-state solution" is sometimes mentioned in the news in the context of the affairs of –


(a)    China

(b)   Israel

(c)    Iraq

(d)   Yemen

  1. Which one of the following countries of South-West Asia does not open out to the Mediterranean Sea? UPSC IAS/2015

(a)    Syria

(b)   Jordan

(c)    Lebanon

(d)   Israel

  1. Consider the following countries


  1. China
  2. France
  3. India
  4. Israel
  5. Pakistan

Which among the countries given above are Nuclear Weapons States as recognized by the Treaty on the Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, commonly known as the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT)?

(a)    1 and 2 only

(b)   1, 3, 4 and 5 only

(c)    2, 4 and 5 only

(d)   1, 2, 3, 4 and 5


  1. “India’s relations with Israel have, of late, acquired a depth and diversity, which cannot be rolled back.” Discuss.

          UPSC IAS/2018

  1. How will the I2U2 (India, Israel, UAE, and USA) grouping transform India's position in global politics?  


RBI’s State of the Economy Report

GS paper III


The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) has published its State of the Economy report. It states a broad-based gaining of growth momentum in the Indian economy and shows the potential challenges to the global economy.

About State of the Economy Report:

  • It is a report published by the RBI. It summarizes the performance of the economy in India. It also takes into consideration the global economic trend and its impact on India.
  • The report covers wide areas such as growth, employment, inflation, Forex reserve, banking conditions, etc.
  • Based on this report the RBI makes decisions on macroeconomic situations. The report not only helps the RBI to make decisions, but it also helps the investors, economists, and citizens to make prudent economic decisions and analyze the situation of the economy.

Key findings of the report:

India's forex reserve increase:

  • The report said that during the calendar year 2023, India's foreign exchange reserves increased by US$ 22.0 billion.
  • The country's foreign exchange reserves were at $7 billion as of the week ended 6 October.
  • The rise in India's foreign exchange reserves is the highest among major foreign exchange reserves-holding countries.

Growth prospects in India:

  • India's growth outlook appears promising, as high-frequency indicators have shown increased momentum in August and September, especially during the festival season, which is expected to boost e-commerce sales.
  • The growth of e-commerce has resulted in pan-India demand for warehousing outgrowing supply by an estimated 1.4 times, with an average growth of 10%.

Impact of spike in US bond yields:

The sharp spike in US bond yields negatively impacts the capital flows to emerging markets like India. Given the safe-haven status of US treasuries, investors tend to favor them.

Rural economy:

  • Jobs in rural areas have improved as the demand for fast-moving consumer goods rebounded following the September rains.
  • Despite rising freight and packaging expenses, the increase in kharif sowing acreage compared to last year contributed to a reduction in rural unemployment in September.

Low volatility of rupees:

  • The Indian rupee (INR) has exhibited low volatility and orderly movements relative to peers, in spite of the elevated US treasury yields and a stronger US dollar.


  • Inflation was above the upper tolerance level for two successive months.
  • The priority has been assigned to maintaining a disinflationary stance and the alignment of inflation outcomes with the target.

Future trajectory:

  • The future trajectory will be conditioned by a number of factors like lower area sown under pulses, dip in reservoir levels, El Nino conditions, and volatile global energy & food prices.

Global growth:

  • Global growth has slowed in the third quarter of 2023, while several emerging market economies (EMEs), especially in Asia and among the BRICS barring China, have posted positive growth surprises.
  • These countries are standing up to formidable global challenges that keep taking away capital flows from their equity and debt markets and imposing relentless downward pressure on their currencies.

How a Strong U.S. Dollar Can Hurt Emerging Markets?

  • When the U.S. dollar grows stronger, emerging market nations feel pressured to raise their own rates in order to continue to compete for foreign capital investment.
  • At the same time, higher interest rates make it harder for emerging-market nations and companies to pay their dollar-denominated debts.
  • India relies on dollar-denominated imports for over 85 % of its crude oil requirements and imports more goods than it exports. So, when the dollar strengthens, it usually increases the import bill of India.
  • A weak U.S. dollar creates an incentive for companies to invest in emerging markets.

Global risk due to the strengthening of the US dollar:

  • The strengthening US dollar increases the risk to global growth, especially for fuel importers like India, as it amplifies tight financial conditions. The rise in crude oil prices is also contributing to inflationary pressures. 

Banking sector:

  • The term deposit rates have surged to their highest levels in the past five years as banks rush to meet strong credit demand.
  • The funds flow from low-yielding current account savings accounts (CASA) to higher-interest-bearing term deposits. Also, the competition among banks for garnering deposits has intensified.
  • The structural liquidity mismatch in the banking system is also reflected in the highest issuance of certificates of deposits (CDs) in September during the current financial year.

Fiscal and monetary policy:

  • Rising crude oil prices are making central banks stay vigilant for an extended time.
  • Additionally, many countries may need to prolong their reliance on fossil fuels, which could harm the global economy.


The RBI's State of the Economy report highlights positive indicators for India's economic growth, including increased forex reserves, e-commerce expansion, and rural job improvements. However, it underscores potential challenges such as global economic risks, inflation concerns, and the need for vigilance due to rising crude oil prices.

Prelims PYQ

  1. Consider the following statements: ​ (UPSC 2021)
  2. The Governor of the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) is appointed by the Central Government.​
  3. Certain provisions in the Constitution of India give the Central Government the right to issue directions to the RBI in the public interest.​
  4. The Governor of the RBI draws his power from the RBI Act.​

Which of the above statements are correct?​

  • 1 and 2 only​
  • 2 and 3 only​
  • 1 and 3 only​
  • 1, 2 and 3

Q2. Which one of the following groups of items is included in India’s foreign–exchange reserves? (UPSC 2013)

  • Foreign–Currency assets, Special Drawing Rights SDRs and loans from other countries
  • Foreign–Currency assets, gold holdings of the RBI and SDRs
  • Foreign–Currency assets, loans from the World Bank and SDRs
  • Foreign–Currency assets, holdings of the RBI and loans from the World Bank

Global Maritime Summit 2023 – towards new Horizons

Why in news?

The Prime Minister recently unveiled ‘Amrit Kaal Vision 2047’, the long-term blueprint for the Indian maritime blue economy during the Global Maritime India Summit 2023 in Mumbai.

 Major six principles stated in Global Maritime Summit -2023:

  1. Charting a Course for Decarbonizing Maritime Transport: Accelerating the Green Revolution
  2. Accelerating Automation and Digitalization in the Maritime Sector: Unlocking Opportunities for Efficiency and Innovation.
  3. Promoting Multimodality: Unlocking Opportunities in Coastal Shipping and Inland Waterways.
  4. Promoting Cruise Tourism and Urban Water Mobility.
  5. Maximizing India's Strength in Maritime Professional Services: Unlocking Investment Opportunities.
  6. Maritime Research, Education, and Skill Development: Promoting a Better Life at Sea.

About: ‘Amrit Kaal Vision-2047’

  • On Port Infrastructure: It aims to quadruple port capacity to 10,000 million tonnes per annum (mtpa) by 2047, aiming to get 100 per cent public-private partnership (PPP) for 12 major ports.
    • The plan includes the development of Next Generation Mega Ports, International Container Trans-shipment Ports, island development, inland waterways, and multi-modal hubs.
    • Increased infrastructural investments worth Rs 75-80 trillion over the next 25 years will be used to achieve the following goals:
      • Carbon neutrality at all major ports
      • Attaining the highest rank in cruise tourism
      • Development of 25 cruise terminals
      • Increasing operational waterways more than twofold
      • 500 million tons (mt) of cargo
    • Global Partnerships: Over 300 Memorandums of Understanding (MoUs) were signed; further solidifying India’s global and national maritime partnerships.
    • Transformative Projects:
      • Make in India: Maritime clusters are being established, with ship-building and repair centres in development.
      • Sustainable Maritime Sector: Efforts are underway to make major Indian ports carbon-neutral through a net-zero strategy for the sector, as India aims to create a ‘Green Planet’ through its blue economy.
      • Ease of doing business: The initiative aims to reduce the cost of conducting business and mitigate environmental deterioration.
      • Sustainability: The plan includes a strategy to make major ports carbon-neutral and push for domestic hydrogen production and distribution.


India towards Embracing the Blue Ocean Dream:

  • India stands at the threshold of immense untapped potential in the maritime domain, powered by its abundant maritime resources.
  • India's maritime sector emerges as a pivotal force that can propel the nation towards becoming a $20 Trillion economy by 2040.
  • In the coming decade, India aspires to lead the cruise sector, offering world-class experiences and attracting travellers from around the globe.
  • As a responsible maritime nation, India is determined to be a global leader in ship recycling, adhering to environmentally sound practices and setting high standards for the industry.
  • Additionally, India recognizes the potential of coastal and inland waterways in driving economic growth and aims to achieve a 12% modal share, along with pioneering in regional transport.

Government Initiative to Build Maritime Infrastructure:

  • Initiatives like the ‘Sagarmala Programme’ stand tall as a testament to the power of port-led development, streamlining logistics, and propelling the coastal regions into vibrant centres of progress.
    • By optimizing the transportation of goods, this initiative has not only made it cost-effective and faster but has also elevated India's position in the international trade landscape. As a result, major ports' capacity has soared by 102%, reaching a staggering 1617 MTPA from 800 MTPA (Metric Tonnes Per Annum).
  • Digitization of operational processes has been a game-changer, introducing a seamless and efficient single-window platform i.e. Sagar Setu – National Logistics Portal (Marine). Empowering exporters, importers, and service providers, it has revolutionized logistics solutions, facilitating smooth document exchange and transactions.
  • The Jal Marg Vikas Projects have unlocked the potential of waterways, promoting commercial navigation. This green and economically viable mode of transportation has elevated the sector to new heights, with National Waterways experiencing an astounding 1734% increase in cargo handling, rising to 126 MTPA from 6.89 MTPA.
  • The Revised Model Concession Agreement has further catalyzed the sector's growth by reducing arbitrations and litigations. Embracing public-private partnerships (PPP), has ushered in clarity, transparency, and a favourable environment for investors. The operationalized PPP projects have witnessed a 150% increase in value, reaching INR 40k crore.
  • The Ministry of Ports, Shipping, and Waterways has taken bold steps to modernize infrastructure, promote coastal shipping, and foster a thriving Blue Economy.

Challenges in the Maritime sector:

  • Inadequate infrastructure: Shallow ports, subdued capacity utilization at ports. Another area that needs a complete overhaul is the cargo handling capability of ports—which would also help to redefine 'major’ and ‘minor’ ports. However, to meet this target, major investments would have to be made in the capacity enhancement of all ports and harbours, irrespective of their status major or minor, public or private.
  • Coastal Security: Coastal security includes preventing ships from running around and a host of other challenges like smuggling, piracy, maritime terrorism, etc. In addition to these aspects, the environmental impact of offshore economic activities like fishing also has security implications for the country.
  • Poor connectivity: The lack of expressway connectivity between major ports and hinterland, impacting ports’ turnaround times and India’s trade competitiveness.
  • Regulatory hurdles: Several export-import (EXIM) processes are not digitized, impacting efficiency of logistics. Currently, ports and harbours in India are governed by a number of laws resulting in a lack of standardization and management. There is also no clarity on how ports are defined. For example, the definition of a major or minor port is not based on its cargo handling capacity or its financial capacity/turnover, but instead on its inception at the outset as an entity under the law.

Way ahead:

  • Inclusion in Maritime activity: To begin with, ports, shipbuilding, ship repair, deep sea shipping, coastal shipping and offshore economic activities need to be grouped together and given the status of an Infrastructure Sector or Strategic Sector, highlighting their importance and placing emphasis on their rapid development.
  • Building financial capability: There is also a need to revisit the country’s tariff and tax policies to provide a level playing field to Indian shipping entities. This is important as foreign shipping companies do not have to bear an unfavourable tariff regime, unlike their Indian counterparts.
  • Building Infrastructure Capacity: The importance of infrastructure in the maritime domain is underscored by history. During the early twentieth century, Germany was an advanced industrial nation but not a great power since its maritime footprint was small because of its low infrastructural capacity.
  • Finalizing the maritime borders: The environmental impact of offshore economic activities like fishing and its security implications on the country’s security needs to be sorted. For example, Pakistan and Sri Lankan fisherman issues.
According to the recently released World Bank’s Logistic Performance Index (LPI) Report 2023, India is at the 22nd rank in global rankings in the “International Shipments” category (up from the 44th position in 2014)


Today considerable progress has been made by many nations in Asia but, unfortunately, this has not always been matched by a proportional investment in their maritime infrastructure. Hence, it is imperative for Asian littorals that are dependent on the seas for their economic existence to develop their maritime capability.



Q1.      Project ‘Mausam’ is considered a unique foreign policy initiative of Indian government to improve relationship with its neighbours. Does the project have a strategic dimension? Discuss (2015)


Q1.     With reference to ‘Indian Ocean Rim Association for Regional Cooperation (IOR-ARC)’, consider the following statements: (2015)

  1. It was established very recently in response to incidents of piracy and accidents of oil spills.
  2. It is an alliance meant for maritime security only.

Which of the following statements given above is/are correct?

(a)       1 only

(b)       2 only

(c)        Both 1 and 2

(d)       Neither 1 nor 2

Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations 1961


Canada had accused India of violating the Vienna Convention on diplomatic relations, as India seeks a reduction in the number of diplomats.

About Vienna Convention

  • The Convention was adopted in 1961 by the United Nations Conference on Diplomatic Intercourse and Immunities held in Vienna, Austria. At present 193 countries are party to the document. India ratified it in 1965.
  • It aims to ensure friendly relations among nations and puts forth a framework for diplomatic interactions between nations.
  • Article 3 – It explains the functions of a diplomatic mission.
  • Article 9 – The receiving state can at any time, prohibit a member of the sending state from entering or remaining in the receiving state.
  • Article 11 – This segment pertains to the size of international missions within other countries. The receiving state may refuse to accept officials of a particular category.
  • Article 22 – The receiving state is under special duty to protect the premises of the mission of intrusion, damage, disturbance of the peace and impairment of its dignity.
  • Article 31 – A diplomatic agent enjoys immunity from the criminal jurisdiction of the receiving State. Such individuals are also provided with immunity from its civil and administrative jurisdiction – with a few exceptions.
  • Article 38 – A diplomatic agent may only enjoy immunities with respect to official acts performed in the exercise of duties.

Dhordo Village


Dhordo village in Gujarat has been selected in the United Nations World Tourism Organisation (UNWTO) best villages list.



  • It is in Kutch district, Gujarat. This village is situated near the India-Pakistan border.
  • Dhordo is famous for hosting the annual Rann Utsav, which showcases the region’s traditional art, music, and crafts.
  • It also hosted the first Tourism Working Group Meeting of the G-20 held under India’s presidency.

Best Tourism Villages initiative:

  • Launched in 2021, it is part of the UNWTO Tourism for Rural Development Programme.
  • A global initiative to highlight those villages where tourism preserves cultures and traditions celebrates diversity, provides opportunities and safeguards biodiversity.
  • Areas of evaluation:
    • Cultural and Natural Resources.
    • Promotion and Conservation of Cultural Resources.
    • Economic, Social, and Environmental Sustainability.
    • Tourism Development and Value Chain Integration.
    • Governance and Prioritization of Tourism.
    • Infrastructure and Connectivity.
    • Health, Safety and Security.
  • Other villages selected in 2023 are from Japan, China, Jordan, Chile, Egypt, etc.


  • It was formed in 1974 with headquarters in Madrid, India joined it in 1975.
  • It promotes tourism as a driver of economic growth, inclusive development and environmental sustainability.

Fast Radio Bursts


Astronomers have discovered a powerful radio wave burst, named FRB 20220610A, that has travelled 8 billion years to reach Earth.


Fast Radio Burst (FRB)

  • FRBs are short bursts of electromagnetic radiation, lasting for a few microseconds to a few milliseconds. They're mostly one-time events, although some FRBs repeat. The first FRB was discovered in 2007.
  • Possible causes of fast radio bursts include magnetars, colliding neutron star binaries, and merging white dwarfs.
  • Fast radio bursts have a tremendous amount of energy at their sources, but they lose energy as they travel billions of light-years to reach Earth. By the time they arrive, the signal strength becomes too weak.
  • Fast radio bursts are mysterious because, even though hundreds of FRBs have been detected in the past couple of decades, their origin is still unknown.

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