Skyroot successfully test fires Stage-2 of Vikram 1 space launch vehicle

News Excerpt: 

Skyroot Aerospace, the leading space-tech company, has successfully test-fired the Stage-2 of Vikram-1 space launch vehicle, called Kalam-250, at the propulsion testbed of the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO), at its Satish Dhawan Space Centre (SDSC) in Sriharikota, Andhra Pradesh.

About stage-2 of Vikram 1:

  • Stage 2 is critical in the ascent of the launch vehicle, as it propels it from the atmospheric phase to the deep vacuum of outer space.
  • The test, which lasted 85 seconds, recorded a peak sea-level thrust of 186 kilonewtons (kN), which will translate to a fully expanded vacuum thrust of around 235kN in flight. 
  • The Kalam-250 is a high-strength carbon composite rocket motor that uses solid fuel and a high-performance Ethylene-Propylene-Diene terpolymers (EPDM) Thermal Protection System (TPS).
  • Stage houses a carbon ablative flex nozzle along with high-precision electro-mechanical actuators for thrust vector control of the vehicle, crucial for achieving the desired trajectory.
  • The Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre (VSSC), another center of ISRO, provided its proprietary head-mounted safe arm (HMSA) for the test, aiding in the safe operation of the rocket stage.
  • Skyroot had previously tested Kalam-100, the third stage of Vikram-1, which was test-fired successfully in June 2021.

About skyroot Aerospace:

  • Skyroot Aerospace, the national-award-winning startup.
    • India’s first privately built space launch vehicles.
  • The firm, founded by former scientists of the Indian Space Research organization (ISRO),
  • Skyroot Aerospace has a  150 plus member strong team actively developing their flagship Vikram series of space launch vehicles, named after ISRO founder Vikram Sarabhai.       
  • Spacetech start-up Skyroot Aerospace successfully tested Dhawan-1 which it claims to be the country’s first privately developed fully cryogenic rocket engine.

What are the primary initiatives in the privatization of Indian space?


  • The government has created the Indian National Space Promotion and Authorisation Centre (IN-SPACe), as a single-window, independent, nodal agency which functions as an autonomous agency in the Department of Space (DOS)
  • Established as a single window agency for all space sector activities of private entities, IN-SPACe plays an important role in boosting the private space sector economy in India.

New Space India Limited (NSIL)

  • NSIL is the commercial arm of Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) with the primary responsibility of enabling Indian industries to take up high technology space related activities and is also responsible for promotion and commercial exploitation of the products and services emanating from the Indian space programme.  
  • To satisfy the needs of its customers, NSIL draws upon the proven heritage of the Indian Space Program and ISRO’s vast experience in diverse branches of Space Technology.

Indian Space Association (ISpA)

  • ISpA is an apex non-profit industry body, set up exclusively for the successful collaborative development of the Private Space Industry in India.
  • ISpA was created to be the single Voice of the Private Space Industry and act as a bridge between the Government and the Private Industry.

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