India TB Report-2024

News Excerpt:

The gap between the estimated number and actual cases of tuberculosis (TB) is closing, according to the India TB Report 2024 released by the Union Health Ministry.

Key points from the India TB Report 2024:

  • Reduction in missing TB cases: The gap between estimated and actual TB cases is decreasing, with only 2.3 lakh missing cases in 2023 compared to 3.2 lakh the previous year.
    •  Tracking TB patients through the Ni-kshay portal has contributed to reducing missing cases.
  • Notifications from the private sector have increased, with nearly 33% (8.4 lakh) of the 25.5 lakh reported cases in 2023 coming from private healthcare providers. 
    • This is a significant increase from 1.9 lakh cases reported in 2015.
  • The estimated incidence of TB slightly increased to 27.8 lakh in 2023, with a mortality rate remaining at 3.2 lakh
    • These estimates are based on a new methodology developed by India and accepted by the World Health Organisation.
  •  By using India's in-country model, TB mortality decreased from 4.94 lakhs (2021) to 3.31 lakhs, and reported cases dropped from 29.4 lakh (2021) to 27.4 lakh.
    • This caused a significant shift in global mortality figures reported by the WHO..
  • India reached its 2023 target of initiating treatment in 95% of diagnosed TB patients.
  • A test to check for medication resistance was administered to 58% of patients with confirmed TB, up from 25% in 2015. 
    • This facilitates prompt access to suitable treatments, particularly for patients with tuberculosis that is resistant to drugs.

What is Tuberculosis?

Tuberculosis (TB) is caused by a bacterium called Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The bacteria usually attack the lungs, but TB bacteria can attack any part of the body such as the kidney, spine, and brain.


  • The TB bacteria transfer from person to person through the air. Bacteria that cause tuberculosis (TB) can enter the air when a person who has the disease of the lungs or throat coughs, speaks, or sings. 


  • Symptoms of TB disease depend on where in the body the TB bacteria are growing. TB bacteria usually grow in the lungs (pulmonary TB). 
  • TB disease in the lungs may cause symptoms such as a bad cough that lasts 3 weeks or longer pain in the chest,coughing up blood or sputum.


  • Medications need to be taken daily for 4–6 months. It is dangerous to stop the medications early or without medical advice. 
    • This can allow TB that is still alive to become resistant to the drugs.
  • Tuberculosis that doesn’t respond to standard drugs is called drug-resistant TB and requires more toxic treatment with different medicines.

Multidrug-resistant TB:

  • Drug resistance emerges when TB medicines are used inappropriately, through incorrect prescription by health care providers, poor quality drugs, or patients stopping treatment prematurely.
  • Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is a form of TB caused by bacteria that do not respond to isoniazid and rifampicin, the 2 most effective first-line TB drugs. MDR-TB is treatable and curable by using second-line drugs. 
    • However, second-line treatment options require extensive medicines that are expensive and toxic.
  • In some cases, more extensive drug resistance can develop. 
    • TB caused by bacteria that do not respond to the most effective second-line TB drugs can leave patients with very limited treatment options.

About Ni-KSHAY:

  • NI-KSHAY-(Ni=End, Kshay=TB) is the web enabled patient management system for TB control under the National Tuberculosis Elimination Programme (NTEP)
  • It is developed and maintained by the Central TB Division (CTD), Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India, in collaboration with the National Informatics Centre (NIC), and the World Health Organization Country office for India.
  • Ni-kshay is used by health functionaries at various levels across the country both in the public and private sector, to register cases under their care, order various types of tests from Labs across the country, record treatment details, monitor treatment adherence and to transfer cases between care providers. 
  • It also functions as the National TB Surveillance System and enables reporting of various surveillance data to the Government of India.

Pradhan Mantri TB Mukt Bharat Abhiyan (PMTBMBA): 

  • The Pradhan Mantri TB Mukt Bharat Abhiyan (PMTBMBA) is a initiative launched by the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (MoHFW) of India with the aim of eliminating tuberculosis (TB) by 2025. 
  • This initiative recognizes the multifaceted nature of the TB challenge and emphasizes the need for a multi-sectoral response involving various stakeholders, including communities and societal institutions. 
  • The PMTBMBA initiative is significant for its community-driven approach and its focus on reducing stigma associated with TB while providing comprehensive support to patients. 
  • It involves the community in a 'Jan Andolan' to accelerate progress towards TB elimination, making it a unique model.
  • Three-fold Objectives:
    • Providing additional patient support to improve treatment outcomes.
    • Augmenting community involvement in meeting India’s commitment to end TB.
    • Leveraging Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) activities.


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