PM JANMAN - A prime Initiative for the Development of PVTGs  in India

PM JANMAN - A prime Initiative for the Development of PVTGs in India

GS-2 Polity and Governance

About tribes in India : India is a country of diversity, with a rich and varied cultural heritage. Among the diverse population of India, there are 705 Scheduled Tribe (ST) communities, who constitute 8.6% of the country’s population.

These communities live in 26 States and six Union Territories, and have their own distinct languages, customs, traditions, and beliefs. However, these communities also face several challenges, such as poverty, illiteracy, malnutrition, health problems, displacement, discrimination, and exploitation.

Among the ST communities, there are 75 tribal communities, who are identified as Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups (PVTGs) by the Government of India. These communities are more vulnerable than other tribal groups, due to their declining or stagnant population, low level of literacy, pre-agricultural level of technology, and subsistence level of economy. They generally inhabit remote localities, having poor infrastructure and administrative support. They also face the threat of losing their customary habitats and livelihood resources, due to conservation policies, developmental projects, and external influences.

What are the issues faced by PVTGs in India 


From a socio-economic perspective, Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups (PVTGs) in India face a multitude of challenges that significantly impact their well-being and development. These challenges arise from a complex interplay of social, economic, and historical factors, contributing to their marginalised status. Here are some key socio-economic issues faced by PVTGs:

Economic Marginalisation

  • Limited Livelihood Opportunities: PVTGs often engage in traditional, subsistence-based occupations, such as agriculture and forest-dependent activities. However, these livelihoods may not be economically viable, leading to poverty and economic vulnerability
  • Land and Resource Deprivation
  • Historical Displacement: Many PVTGs have faced historical displacement from their ancestral lands, resulting in landlessness and loss of access to critical natural resources.
  • Resource Exploitation: Encroachment on their traditional territories for resource extraction or development projects often leads to economic deprivation and threatens their sustainable livelihood practices.
  • Limited Access to Education
  • Educational Disparities: PVTGs often experience low literacy rates due to a lack of educational infrastructure in their regions, linguistic barriers, and cultural differences.
  • Barriers to Education: Socio-economic constraints, coupled with a lack of schools and teachers who understand their cultural context, contribute to limited educational opportunities for PVTG children.
  • Health Disparities
  • Poor Healthcare Infrastructure: PVTG communities often lack access to quality healthcare facilities, leading to high morbidity and mortality rates.
  • Nutritional Challenges: Malnutrition and inadequate healthcare exacerbate health disparities, affecting the overall socio-economic development of these communities.
  • Cultural Erosion
  • Impact of Globalization: Globalisation and integration with mainstream culture can lead to the erosion of traditional languages, customs, and practices, impacting the socio-cultural fabric of PVTG communities.
  • Social Stigma: Marginalisation and stereotypes contribute to social stigma, affecting the self-esteem and identity of PVTGs.
  • Legal Recognition and Protection
  • Incomplete Legal Safeguards: Despite constitutional provisions, PVTGs may not have complete legal recognition and protection, leaving them vulnerable to land alienation and exploitation.
  • Inadequate Implementation: Inconsistent implementation of protective laws and policies contributes to socio-economic vulnerabilities among PVTGs.
  • Dependency on Natural Resources
  • Climate Change Vulnerability: PVTGs, often dependent on natural resources, are susceptible to the impacts of climate change, including disruptions in rainfall patterns and the availability of forest resources.
  • Lack of Political Representation
  • Underrepresentation: PVTGs may lack political representation, limiting their ability to advocate for socio-economic policies that address their specific needs and concerns.

Addressing these socio-economic issues requires comprehensive and targeted interventions that consider the unique cultural contexts of PVTGs. Efforts should focus on sustainable livelihood development, improving access to education and healthcare, and ensuring legal protection to promote the overall socio-economic well-being of PVTG communities.

The scheme - PM JANMAN

To address the issues and challenges faced by the PVTGs, the Government of India has recently launched a new scheme, called Pradhan Mantri Janjati Adivasi Nyaya Maha Abhiyan (PM JANMAN). The scheme was announced by the Prime Minister on Janjatiya Gaurav Diwas in Jharkhand’s Khunti. The scheme aims to provide 11 critical interventions for the development and welfare of the PVTGs, covering various aspects, such as housing, road connectivity, water supply, health, education, skill development, electricity, solar energy, mobile connectivity, and livelihood support. The scheme has a total outlay of Rs 24,104 crore, of which the central share will be Rs 15,336 crore and the states will contribute Rs 8,768 crore. The scheme will benefit over 28.16 lakh tribal people from 220 districts in 18 states and one Union Territory.


Key Features of PM JANMAN

The PM JANMAN scheme has the following key features:

  • The scheme targets to provide 4.90 lakh pucca homes at a cost of Rs 2.39 lakh per house, to ensure dignified and secure living for the PVTGs.
  • The scheme also aims to construct 8,000 kilometres of roads at a cost of Rs 1 crore per kilometre, to improve the accessibility and mobility of the PVTGs.
  • The scheme will ensure piped water supply for all PVTG habitations, and community water supply in 2,500 villages/habitations with a population of less than 20 households, to provide safe and adequate drinking water for the PVTGs.
  • The scheme will also provide a thousand mobile medical units with medicine cost for 10 districts at Rs 33.88 lakh per mobile medical unit, to cater to the health needs of the PVTGs. The Union Ministry of Ayush will also set up Ayush Wellness Centres, and extend Ayush facilities to PVTG habitations through mobile medical units.
  • The scheme will also facilitate the construction of 500 hostels at a cost of Rs 2.75 crore each, to provide accommodation and education facilities for the PVTG students. The scheme will also provide for the construction of 2,500 Anganwadi centres (at Rs 12 lakh each), and multipurpose centres (at Rs 60 lakh each), to cater to the nutritional and social needs of the PVTGs.
  • The scheme will also provide last-mile electricity connection for 57,000 households, a 0.3 KW solar off-grid system, solar lighting in streets, and installation of mobile towers in 3,000 villages, to enhance the energy and communication facilities for the PVTGs.
  • The scheme will also support the skill and vocational training of the PVTGs, in collaboration with the Union Ministry of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship, in PVTG habitations, multi-purpose centres and hostels, according to the suitable skills of these communities. The scheme will also provide livelihood support to the PVTGs, by promoting organic farming, non-timber forest produce, and other traditional occupations.

Significance of the initiative

The PM JANMAN scheme is a significant initiative for the development and empowerment of the PVTGs, as it aims to address the various issues and challenges faced by these communities, and to improve their quality of life. The scheme will also help to preserve and promote the rich and diverse cultural heritage of the PVTGs, by respecting their rights, aspirations, and identities. The scheme will also contribute to the overall development and security of the country, by ensuring the inclusion and integration of the PVTGs in the mainstream society and economy. The scheme will also demonstrate the commitment and sensitivity of the Government of India towards the welfare and dignity of the PVTGs, and will fulfil the constitutional and legal obligations of the state towards these communities.


The welfare of Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups (PVTGs) in India is imperative for fostering a just and inclusive society. Addressing the socio-economic challenges faced by PVTGs is not only a matter of ethical responsibility but also essential for the overall development and diversity of the nation. By prioritising their welfare, we contribute to preserving the rich cultural heritage and traditional knowledge embedded within these communities. Ensuring economic empowerment, access to quality education and healthcare, legal protection, and environmental sustainability for PVTGs are crucial steps toward creating a more equitable and harmonious society. Recognizing and respecting the rights of PVTGs is not just a legal obligation but a moral imperative that enhances the social tapestry of India by embracing and celebrating its diverse identities.

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