Fish commercial breeding is known as pisciculture. The practice of breeding, growing, and transporting fish for domestic and commercial purposes is called fish farming or pisciculture.

Other names for it include mariculture, aquaculture, and fish farming. It is a form of aquaculture in which aquatic organisms, such as fish, crabs, and molluscs, are skillfully tended to and harvested. Either a real-world natural environment or a simulated one can be used.

For entertainment or to increase a species' natural population, young fish are released into the wild from a fish hatchery. Carp, catfish, salmon, and tilapia are the fish most frequently raised in fish farms worldwide.

"aquafarming" refers to a broad range of commercial activities that involve raising and harvesting aquatic animals for food or profit. The practice of aquaculture in water is known as "mariculture."

Raising fish in tanks or backyard ponds is known as pisciculture. All of these aquafarming businesses and methods are expanding quickly to meet demand. The food and agriculture sector predicts that aquaculture will grow three times more quickly than markets for land-based agriculture.

With China, India, and Vietnam producing the most and the US producing the least, it is already a large industry. The demand for seafood is rising globally, especially for high-quality protein. By 2030, aquaculture, a quickly growing agriculture sector, will provide about two-thirds of the fish destined for human consumption.

In some form of aquaculture, most seafood produced globally is produced. Various fish species, aquatic plants, molluscs, algae, and crustaceans are all developing into enormous industries worldwide.

Various Forms of Fish Farming or Pisciculture

There are three subcategories of pisciculture. Monoculture, Polyculture, and Monosex Culture. 

Monoculture: Monoculture makes it possible to farm a single species of fish. This fish has an abundance of production and a high-quality level. These fish are the most popular because of their unique taste and quality. 

Polyculture: Fish farming in polyculture is also called composite or mixed farming. Fish of various appropriate species can grow in a single pond using the polyculture technique. In this technique, their eating habits must change for each species to survive on a different kind of food from a common source. It is a beneficial form of the fishery.

Monosex Culture: Growing female or male fish of the same species is possible with mono-sex culture. This culture uses this method to produce fish. One such kind of fish is tilapia.

Techniques for Pisciculture 

Various fish farms employ various techniques, which are discussed further down:

Cage System: The Cage System submerges metal cages in fish-filled water. This method of aquaculture enables the artificial feeding of fish. The risk of storm-related damage and escape remains a concern despite the cage industry making numerous technological advancements in cage construction in recent years. 

The Pond System: A small pond or tank is required for residents of pond systems to keep fish. One of the best methods for raising fish is this one. Commercial fish food is regularly fed to fish in small systems, and their waste can help fertilize the crops. Larger ponds produce algae and water plants that serve as fish food.

Integrated Recycling System: Large plastic fish tanks are placed in a greenhouse as a component of the Integrated Recycling System. Alongside the tanks, there is also a hydroponic bed. Basil, parsley, and other plants are grown in soil once used for the fish tanks. If properly fertilized, tilapia raised in tanks can consume algae that naturally grow in the tanks.

Classic Fry Farming: Fish are raised using the Classic Fry Farming method from eggs to fingerlings before being released into stream water. Commercial fish meal pellets are fed to the fry.

Blue Revolution 

The blue revolution is related to the development of fisheries in India. Its main target was raising fish production, promoting aquaculture, and maintaining food security to balance its population.

This revolution was launched in 2015. The main focal areas of this revolution are as follows. 

  • Marine Fisheries: Advancing ethical fishing methods, protecting marine life, and developing the fishing sector.
  • Inland Fisheries: Fostering the growth of freshwater aquaculture, enhancing reservoir fish production, and encouraging wetlands' sustainable use.
  • Aquaculture: Promoting the production of fish seeds, advancing fish feed technology, and fostering fish farming.

Pisciculture Development Issues in India: 

  • Low Productivity: India's production level of fish farming could be higher due to outdated technology, low-quality inputs, and mal-management practices. 
  • Low Profitability: In India, farmers earn a very low income due to higher input costs, low market prices, and poor market linkages. 
  • Water Pollution: Increasing industrial and domestic waste and intensive agriculture practices create problems for fish farming. 
  • Disease Outbreaks: Fish farming suffers from various diseases such as bacterial infections, viral diseases, and parasites, leading to huge losses. 

Pisciculture Development Strategies in India:

  • Institutional Support: Farmers are provided support through credit facilities, subsidies, and insurance schemes. 
  • Water Resource Management: Promotion of sustainable use of water resources by ensuring smooth water resources management practices. 
  • Quality Control: Using quality control measures to ensure the quality of fish seed and feed. 
  • Environmental Protection: Ensuring long-term viability of the sector by promoting environmentally sustainable aquaculture practices. 
  • Capacity Building: Fish farmers can improve their technical knowledge and skills by receiving training and extension services.
  • Technology Adoption: Encouraging cutting-edge, productive fish farming techniques like bio floc technology and recirculatory aquaculture systems.

Market Linkages: Creating market connections will help fish farmers get higher product prices.

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