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The 91st Interpol General Assembly was held in Vienna this week in honour of Interpol's centennial in 2023.



  • INTERPOL stands for the International Criminal Police Organization.
  • It is the world’s largest international police organization.
  • It is cross-border police cooperation.
  • It was established in 1923
  • The goal is to help police work together to make the world a safer place
  • Members: 196 (including India)
  • Objectives: To facilitate international police cooperation even where diplomatic relations are not present between certain countries.


Historical Evolution of INTERPOL

1914 Conception at Monaco
    1. Event: Inaugural International Criminal Police Congress in Monaco (1914).
    2. Objective: Deliberation on crime-solving cooperation, identification methods, and extradition.
    3. Outcome: World War I interrupts plans.

1923 Vienna Congress and ICPC Formation
    1. Event: Second International Criminal Police Congress in Vienna.
    2. Leader: Dr. Johannes Schober, Vienna Police President.
    3. Participants: 20 countries convene.
    4. Milestone: Agreement on September 7, 1923, establishes the International Criminal Police Commission (ICPC).
    5. Objectives: Collaboration on arrests, extradition, common languages, and innovations in identification techniques.

1923 ICPC Inauguration
    1. Leadership: Dr. Johannes Schober (President) and Dr. Oskar Dressler (Secretary) of the Austrian Federal Police.
    2. Headquarters: Vienna, Austria, offers to house and finance ICPC headquarters.

1956 Emergence of ICPO-INTERPOL
    1. Transition: ICPC transforms into the International Criminal Police Organization (ICPO-INTERPOL).
    2. Constitution: Adoption of a modernized constitution.
    3. Financial Autonomy: Shifts to autonomous financial structure, relying on member country dues and investments.

    1. Now recognized as INTERPOL.
    2. Mission: Ongoing commitment to global police collaboration, addressing contemporary security challenges.
    3. Enduring Principles: Early Resolutions' principles remain relevant, guiding activities spanning international crime and security.


Structure of INTERPOL

General Assembly

  • Supreme governing body
  • Responsible for crucial decisions regarding working methods, policies, finances, resources, and programs.
  • Annual meeting attended by delegates appointed by member countries.
  • Each country represented by one or more delegates, usually chiefs of law enforcement agencies.
  • Elect members of the Interpol Executive Committee.

Executive Committee

  • Elected by the General Assembly, consists of 13 members.
  • Composition:
    • President
    • 3 Vice Presidents
    • 9 Delegates covering 4 different regions.
  • Governing body providing guidance and direction between Assembly sessions.

General Secretariat

  • Works 365 days, 24/7 to support members in international policing.
  • Headquartered in Lyon, France, with a liaison office in New York, United States.
  • 6 regional offices for efficient functioning:
    • Argentina (South America)
    • Côte d’Ivoire (West Africa)
    • El Salvador (Central America)
    • Kenya (East Africa)
    • Thailand (South East Asia)
    • Zimbabwe (Africa)

National Central Bureau (NCB)

  • NCB serves as the contact point for the General Secretariat, regional offices, and other member countries requiring assistance with overseas investigations.
  • Facilitates the location and apprehension of fugitives.
  • Each member country maintains an NCB staffed by national law enforcement officers.
  • Example: Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) is NCP in India.


  • Experts appointed by the Executive Committee and confirmed by the General Assembly.
  • Serve in a purely advisory capacity.

Core Functions

  • Secure Global Police Communication Services
    1. Operates the I-24/7 Global Police Communications System.
    2. Objective: Provide a unified platform for member countries' police organizations to share sensitive and urgent information globally.
    3. Linkage: Connects law enforcement agencies worldwide.
    4. Communication: Facilitates real-time communication and collaboration among member countries' law enforcement agencies.
  • Operational Data Services and Databases for Police
    1. Offers a comprehensive database accessible to police globally.
    2. Purpose: Enables police forces worldwide to access critical services for crime prevention and investigation.
    3. Data Holdings: Includes criminal profiles, records, theft information, stolen passports, vehicles, artwork, forgeries, etc.
    4. Enhances the ability to share and access crucial data for international law enforcement efforts.
  • Operational Police Support Services
    1. Provides support to law enforcement officials in the field during emergencies.
    2. Assists in operational activities related to priority crime areas.
    3. Priority Crime Areas: Focus areas include fugitives, public safety, terrorism, drugs, organized crime, human trafficking, and financial/high-tech crime.
    4. 24/7 Command and Coordination Centre: Operates continuously, offering round-the-clock support.

Principles of INTERPOL

  • Respect for National Sovereignty: Interpol upholds the principle of respecting the sovereignty of each member country. It recognizes the autonomy of nations and works collaboratively within the boundaries set by each country's legal framework.
  • Neutrality: Interpol maintains a neutral stance in international affairs. It does not engage in activities that could be perceived as favoring any particular political, military, religious, or racial group. The organization strives to remain impartial and objective in its operations.
  • Constant and Active Cooperation: Interpol emphasizes the importance of continuous and active cooperation among its member countries. The organization facilitates the exchange of information, intelligence, and resources to enhance global efforts in combating transnational crime.
  • Respect for Human Rights: Interpol is committed to upholding and respecting human rights in all its activities. It ensures that its operations align with international human rights standards and works to prevent the misuse of its processes for political, military, racial, or religious purposes.

Types of INTERPOL Notices

Interpol issues different types of color-coded notices to facilitate international police cooperation. Each notice serves a specific purpose and provides information about criminals or threats.


Red Notice

  • Purpose: To seek the location and arrest of a person wanted by a member country for extradition.
  • Characteristics: Often referred to as an international wanted notice. It is not an international arrest warrant, but a request for cooperation.

Green Notice

  • Purpose: To provide warnings and criminal intelligence about individuals who have committed criminal offenses and are likely to repeat these crimes in other countries.
  • Characteristics: A preventive measure to alert member countries about potential threats.

Blue Notice

  • Purpose: To collect additional information about a person's identity, location, or activities in relation to a crime.
  • Characteristics: Used to track and gather more information about a person of interest in a criminal investigation.

Yellow Notice

  • Purpose: Issued to help locate a missing person, especially minors, or to help identify persons who are unable to identify themselves.
  • Characteristics: Addresses concerns related to missing persons and is often used in cases involving minors or persons with mental health issues.

Black Notice

  • Purpose: To seek information on unidentified bodies.
  • Characteristics: Issued to help identify deceased persons and gather information about the circumstances surrounding their death.

Orange Notice 

  • Purpose: Issued to warn of an event, a person, an object, or a process representing a serious and imminent threat to public safety.
  • Characteristics: Typically related to a potential terrorist threat or other significant dangers.

Purple notice

  • Purpose: To seek or provide information on criminal modus operandi, objects, devices, and concealment methods used by criminals.
  • Characteristics: Aims to prevent and combat criminal activities by sharing knowledge about evolving techniques and strategies.

INTERPOL–United Nations Security Council Special Notice

    • Purpose: Issued for entities and individuals who are the targets of UN Security Council Sanctions Committees.
Characterstics: The notice is specifically designed for entities and individuals who are subjects of UN Security Council Sanctions Committees.


Crime Programs of INTERPOL

  • Counter-Terrorism

Identifying individuals, networks, and affiliates in order to support member nations in their efforts to stop and disrupt terrorist activity.

  • Organized and Emerging Crimes

Locating, evaluating, and countering criminal threats; focusing on and upending global criminal networks.

  • Cybercrime

Assisting member nations in preventing and looking into cyberattacks in order to make cyberspace safe for everyone.

Interpol Vision 2030

  • I-CORE, which stands for "INTERPOL Collaborative Platform," is a 10-year program launched by INTERPOL to reinforce its function as a global police information hub. 
  • The program aims to harness technology for the world's police and invest in enhancing INTERPOL's capabilities, particularly in the field of data services, to better support frontline policing and transnational investigations.
  • I-CORE represents a significant technological transformation in international policing, and its initiatives are designed to have a positive impact on crisis management situations, such as responding to the challenges associated with the COVID-19 pandemic. 
  • The program recognizes the need for financial investment and calls on partners to contribute to shaping the future of global law enforcement through technology and collaboration.


  • To reinforce global security and support INTERPOL's seven Global Policing Goals, which are aligned with the United Nations 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. 
  • These goals include preventing terrorism, securing borders, protecting citizens (especially vulnerable communities), making cyberspace safer, countering corruption, dismantling trafficking networks, and supporting environmental security.

Key components of I-CORE 

  • Biometrics for Frontline Policing
      • Focuses on improving access to biometric data for frontline police.
      • Biometrics, such as fingerprints, facial recognition, etc., play a crucial role in law enforcement for identifying and tracking individuals involved in criminal activities.
  • Smart Case Messaging
      • Aims to enhance the exchange of international case messages.
      • Improves communication and information-sharing between law enforcement agencies globally, allowing for more effective collaboration on transnational cases.
  • Unified Information Architecture
    • Focuses on the search and exploitation of information.
    • Aims to create a unified framework for managing and extracting valuable insights from criminal data, contributing to more efficient and comprehensive law enforcement efforts.



During the 91st Interpol General Assembly held in Vienna, India emphasized eliminating any sanctuary for criminals, criminal activity, and the proceeds of criminal activity. The country also called for "concerted action" via Interpol channels to actively combat and prevent transnational crimes like online radicalization, terrorism, and cyber-enabled financial fraud in real-time.


  • India, an Interpol member since 1949, actively engages in discussions and advocacy.
  • NCB: New Delhi
  • India has hosted two general assemblies.
  • Hosted the 90th General Assembly in 2022, showcasing leadership and commitment.
  • India emphasizes denying safe havens to criminals, leading to the successful deportation or extradition of 24 individuals.
    • A proactive approach to combat organized crime, terrorism, drug trafficking, and cyber-enabled financial crimes aligns with Interpol's Vision 2030.

Operation Chakra II

    • Launched by CBI
    • Objective: To combat financial crimes in India that are enabled by transnational organizations and cyberspace.
    • Partnership: Worked with major international tech companies like Amazon and Microsoft.
International cooperation: forming partnerships to find and follow up on leads with the FBI (USA), Cyber Crime Directorate, and IFCACC of INTERPOL, NCA (UK), Singapore Police Force, and BKA (Germany).
  • Target: Take down and destroy the infrastructure that allows illegal call centers to commit financial crimes.

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