Indian Space Policy 2023


The Cabinet Committee on Security approved the Indian Space Policy 2023. The policy aims to institutionalize private sector participation in the space sector, with ISRO focusing on advanced space technology research and development.

What key elements makeup India's space policy for 2023?


The policy will provide much-needed clarity in space reforms and strengthen private industry participation to help the nation exploit the space economy opportunity.

Role Delineation:

  • The policy defines the roles and responsibilities of the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO), the space sector PSU NewSpace India Limited (NSIL), and the Indian National Space Promotion and Authorization Center (IN-SPACe).
  • NSIL will carry out strategic activities in the space sector on a demand-driven basis.
  • IN-SPACe will serve as a liaison between ISRO and non-governmental organizations.
  • ISRO will concentrate on developing new technologies, systems, and research and development.
  • The operational component of ISRO's missions will be transferred to NewSpace India Limited.

Private Sector Participation:

  • The policy will enable the private sector to participate in all space activities, such as developing launchers, rockets, and satellites.
  • The private sector can use ISRO facilities for a small fee and is encouraged to invest in new infrastructure.


  • The policy will assist India in increasing its share of the global space economy from less than 2% to 10% in the future.

What is India's Space Sector's Current Condition?


  • India's space industry is known worldwide for producing affordable satellites, and now it is even launching foreign satellites into orbit.
  • India continues to support the peaceful and civil use of space and oppose any militarization of space capabilities or programmes as part of its commitment to the Geneva Conference on Disarmament.
  • ISRO is the world's sixth-largest space agency and has a high success rate.
  • India ranks fifth in the world in private space companies, with over 400.

Indian space industry's recent developments include:

  • Defence Space Agency (DSA): India recently established its Defence Space Agency (DSA), which is supported by the Defence Space Research Organization (DSRO), with the mission of developing weapons to "degrade, disrupt, destroy, or deceive an adversary's space capability."
  • In addition, at the Defence Expo 2022 in Gandhinagar, the Indian Prime Minister launched the Defence Space Mission.
  • Expanding Satellite Manufacturing Capabilities: By 2025, India's satellite manufacturing opportunity will be worth USD 3.2 billion (in 2020, it was USD 2.1 billion)
  • SAMVAD Program: ISRO launched its Student Outreach Program called SAMVAD at its Bengaluru facility to encourage and nurture space research among young minds.

What are the current major challenges in the space sector?

  • Lack of Commercialization Regulations: The development of private satellite expeditions for Internet services (Starlink-SpaceX) and space tourism hastened the commercialization of outer space.

  • Rising commercialization may eventually lead to monopolization unless a regulatory framework is implemented.
  • Increased Space Debris: As space missions rise, more space debris will gather. Due to the high speeds at which objects orbit the Earth, even a small piece of space debris can damage a spacecraft.

  • China's Space Leap: The Chinese space industry has grown rapidly compared to other countries. BeiDou, its navigation system, has been successfully launched.
  • Members of China's Belt Road Initiative (BRI) are likely to contribute to or join the Chinese space sector, solidifying China's global position and potentially leading to the weaponization of outer space.

  • Global Trust Deficit Is Growing: A race to weaponize outer space fuels suspicion, competition, and aggressiveness worldwide, potentially leading to conflict.
  • It would also jeopardize the entire fleet of satellites, including those used for scientific exploration and communication.

 The Future Perspectives:

  • The Best Approach to Protecting India's Space Assets: India needs dependable and precise tracking capabilities to protect its space assets, including spacecraft and debris.
  • An excellent step in this regard is Project NETRA, a space-based early warning system to find debris and other threats to Indian satellites.
  • India should take the initiative to work with international organizations and make long-term plans for a planetary defence programme and cooperative space missions.
  • With the Gaganyan project, ISRO has also started concentrating on human space flight to reimagine India's space position.
  • Space 4Women is an initiative of the United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs (UNOOSA) that advocates for gender equality and women's empowerment in the space industry. Space4 Women is being replicated in India.
  • It would be advantageous to start space awareness campaigns in India's rural areas. College-ISRO Internship corridors might be created especially for female students to introduce them to expand their horizons beyond the planet.
  • AzaadiSAT, developed by 750 Indian schoolgirls, is a decisive step in that direction.
  • Technological Intervention for a Cleaner Space: India can become a space explorer and problem solver by developing self-eating rockets, self-disappearing satellites, and robotic arms to capture space junk.

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