Important Institutions: NDMA

Important Institutions: NDMA

NDMA is an apex body of the Indian government. It is known as the National Disaster Management Authority.

Important Institutions: NDMA

NDMA is an apex body of the Indian government. It is known as the National Disaster Management Authority. It has the responsibility of formulating disaster management policies. Through the Disaster Management Act, which the Indian government passed, the NDMA was created.

Objectives of NDMA 

  • The organisation's main goals are to build capacity in disaster resilience and crisis response and coordinate the response to natural and man-made disasters.
  • In order to ensure efficient and prompt response to disasters, the apex body is also responsible for establishing policies, plans, and guidelines for disaster management.
  • In addition to the above, the goal is to create a more secure and disaster-resilient India through a comprehensive, proactive, technology-driven, and sustainable development strategy that involves all key players and promotes a culture of preparedness, prevention, and mitigation.

Evolution of NDMA 

  • The Government of India established a High-Powered Committee (HPC) in August 1999 and a National Committee following the Gujarat earthquake (2001) in recognition of the significance of Disaster Management as a national priority to make recommendations on the creation of Disaster Management plans and suggesting efficient mitigation mechanisms.
  • For the first time, a comprehensive chapter on disaster management was included in the Tenth Five-Year Plan document. The financial arrangements for disaster management were to be reviewed by the Twelfth Finance Commission.
  • The Indian government enacted the Disaster Management Act on December 23, 2005. It called for establishing the National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA), headed by the Prime Minister, and State Disaster Management Authorities (SDMAs), led by the respective Chief Ministers, to lead and carry out an all-encompassing and integrated approach to disaster management in India.

Purposes and Duties of NDMA 

  • To endorse the national disaster plan.
  • To Set up guidelines for disaster management.
  • To approve any plants created by central government departments or ministries that follow the National Plan.
  • To Specify the procedures that State Authorities must follow when creating State Plans.
  • To Specify the procedures that various Ministries or Departments of the Central Government must follow to incorporate disaster mitigation or prevention measures into their development strategies and initiatives.
  • To ensure that the Disaster Management plan is coordinated in enforcement and implementation.
  • To Encourage the provision of money for mitigation.
  • To Take whatever additional precautions it deems necessary for disaster mitigation, disaster preparedness, disaster prevention, and disaster response.
  • To set broad principles for its smooth operation of Disaster Management.

Indian Disaster Management Institutional Framework

  • The State Government in question is in charge of managing disasters in the first instance.
  • However, the National Policy on Disaster Management creates a supportive environment for all, including the Center, States, and Districts.
  • In accordance with and as required by the Disaster Management Act of 2005, the National Policy on Disaster Management, 2009, has been developed. It offers a plan/framework for dealing with disasters holistically.
  • The Disaster Management Authority has been established at the national, state, and district levels in accordance with the Act's provisions.
  • Under the leadership of the Prime Minister, the National Executive Committee (NEC) of Secretaries was established to support the National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) in carrying out its duties.
  • A State Disaster Management Authority has been established at the state level, headed by the state's chief minister with assistance from a state executive committee.
  • District Disaster Management Authorities have been established at the district level.
  • In order to ensure a prompt and effective response to disasters and long-term disaster risk reduction, it lays out the policies, plans, and guidelines for disaster management.
  • Furthermore, India has ratified the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction (SFDRR), which establishes goals for disaster management.

State Disaster Management Authority (SDMA)

  • The SDMA, which is presided over by the Chief Minister of the relevant state, establishes the state's policies and plans for disaster management.
  • In addition to reviewing the development plans, it is responsible for coordinating the implementation of the state plan and recommending funds for mitigation and preparedness measures.
  • In accordance with the DM Act, the State Executive Committee (SEC), the state's chief secretary, leads, coordinates, and oversees the implementation of the National Policy, the National Plan, and the State Plan.

District Disaster Management Authority (DDMA)

  • Every district of a state may establish DDMA under Section 25 of the DM Act.
  • Except in tribal areas, where the Chief Executive Member of the District Council of Autonomous District is designated as Co-Chairperson, the Authority is led by the District Magistrate, District Collector, or Deputy Commissioner in addition to a locally elected official serving as Co-Chairperson.
  • Furthermore, the co-chairperson of DDMA will be the chairperson of the district's Zila Parishad.
  • Planning, coordinating, and implementing disaster management is the District Authority's responsibility, as is taking the appropriate steps for disaster management as specified in the regulations.
  • In order to enforce safety standards, plan for relief efforts, and handle disaster response at the district level, the District Authority also has the Authority to inspect construction in any district area.

India's Efforts in Managing Disaster


  • Establishment of National Disaster Reaction Force (NDRF):


      • India deliberately created disaster management (DM) as a comprehensive strategy, incorporating disaster preparedness, mitigation, and disaster risk reduction (DRR) into plans and policies rather than just responding to disasters after they occur.
      • With the creation of its National Disaster Reaction Force (NDRF), the largest rapid reaction force devoted to disaster response, India has increased its ability to prevent and respond to all types of disasters.


  • Indian Disaster Relief Role Abroad:


    • India is a new donor who has helped other nations significantly with foreign development assistance and disaster relief.
    • With the primary use of naval ships or aircraft, India's foreign humanitarian assistance has increasingly included its military resources.
    • Many recipient nations have been in South and Southeast Asia, keeping with its "Neighborhood First" diplomatic stance.
    • India has provided bilateral foreign humanitarian aid to Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, the Maldives, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, and other countries over the past 20 years.

Contribution to Regional Preparedness for Disasters:

  • India participates in regional disaster preparedness and capacity-building initiatives as part of its neighbourhood development efforts.
  • As part of the Bay of Bengal Initiative for Multi-Sectoral Technical and Economic Cooperation (BIMSTEC), India has hosted DM Exercises that allow the National Disaster Response Force (NDRF) to show counterparts from partner states the methods developed to handle various disasters.
  • India's first responders have interacted with those from nations in the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) and the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) as a result of other NDRF and Indian Armed Forces exercises.

Disaster Management Related to Climate Change:

  • Globally, the last two decades have seen many climate-related disasters, with floods being the most frequent and storms being the second-deadliest type of disaster (behind earthquakes).
  • The Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction, the Sustainable Development Goals (2015–2030), and the Paris Agreement on Climate Change make it clear how DRR, climate change adaptation (CCA), and sustainable development are related and have all been adopted by India.
  • India takes part in a number of multilateral organizations that deal with these and other problems that are better handled by international cooperation.

limitations of NDMA

  • During the 2013 Uttarakhand Flooding, when the NDMA failed to alert the public to flash floods and landslides promptly, concerns were raised about its performance. The response to the disaster relief effort could have been more adequate. The NDMA's poor planning, which resulted in unfinished projects for flood and landslide mitigation, was blamed by experts.
  • According to a CAG report, completing projects under flood management programs took time. The document noted that the projects had yet to be undertaken in an integrated fashion and blamed NDMA for institutional shortcomings.
  • According to this argument, there have been significant delays in finishing river management projects and work on border area projects that were intended to be long-term fixes for Assam, north Bihar, and eastern Uttar Pradesh's flooding issues.
  • For the institutions, the devastation caused by the floods in Chennai in 2015 and Kerala in 2018 served as a wake-up call regarding their preparedness for disaster situations.
  • The 2015 Chennai floods were described as a "man-made disaster" in the CAG report, and the Tamil Nadu government was held accountable.
  • The NDRF personnel needs more training, tools, infrastructure, and housing to handle the crisis effectively.
  • Misuse of Funds: The government established the National Disaster Response Fund and the State Disaster Response Fund to respond to disasters.
  • The results of the audit show that some states misappropriated money for expenses that were not authorized for disaster management.
  • The release of funds was delayed significantly in a few instances. Additionally, some States lost much interest because they needed to invest the money. This demonstrates the financial indiscipline in state money management.

Steps to take for effective disaster management.

  • To inform and direct the creation and execution of disaster management, there is a need for macro-level policy guidelines. 
  • The urgent need is to create a culture of mitigation and readiness.
  • Specific developmental plans for preventing and mitigating disasters should be developed, along with operational guidelines for incorporating disaster management practices into development.
  • Effective early warning systems and response plans should be implemented at the district, state, and federal levels.
  • At all stages of disaster management, the community, NGOs, CSOs, and the media should be involved.
  • Adaptation and mitigation strategies should be used to manage climate risk.
  • In order to build infrastructure that is resilient to disasters, a dynamic policy is needed. Apart from it, ISRO, NRSA, IMD, and other institutions must work together to provide technological solutions.
  • To effectively deal with typhoons and other disasters, nations should build strong infrastructures like Hong Kong, China, Japan, and Korea have built strong infrastructures over the years.

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