Green Hydrogen - Substitute to Fossil Fuel

Green Hydrogen - Substitute to Fossil Fuel

When water is electrolyzed using renewable energy sources like wind, solar, and hydropower, green hydrogen is created, a clean energy source.

It can assist in reducing climate change and has the potential to play a significant role in the transition to a carbon-free economy. It is possible to store the hydrogen created and use it as a fuel for industry, agriculture, and transportation.

The transition to a sustainable future in the energy sector increasingly depends on green hydrogen. Green hydrogen production has never gotten a boost due to falling production costs from using renewable energy sources and efforts to cut greenhouse gas emissions.

The decarbonization of a number of industries, including transportation, energy storage, and industry, will be significantly aided by this component. Consequently, we can expect great things from green hydrogen. 

 Hydrogen Gas Types 

Hydrogen comes in a variety of colours besides green:

  • Blue Hydrogen
  • Grey Hydrogen
  • Turquoise Hydrogen

Blue Hydrogen: The main source of its production is natural gas, used in the steam reforming process, which combines natural gas and heated water to produce blue hydrogen as a byproduct. It is additionally referred to as low-carbon hydrogen.

Grey Hydrogen is produced by combining natural gas and methane with steam reforming and is one of the most frequently found hydrogens. Since both CO2 and carbon monoxide are produced and not captured, this causes the emission of black or brown hydrogen, which is known to be harmful to the environment. 

Turquoise hydrogen: It is a brand-new colour for hydrogen produced by pyrolyzing methane to produce solid carbon, also known as carbon black. Numerous industrial applications for this byproduct exist, such as applying coatings to tires, batteries, and plastic.

Benefits of Green Hydrogen 


  • Fuel cells can be created using green hydrogen, a superb substitute for conventional fossil fuels. 
  • The fuel cell electric vehicle trend is undergoing a revolution right now. 
  • It is completely sustainable and does not release any pollutants while being used or during the electrolysis process.


  • Numerous industrial sectors rely on non-renewable energy sources, contributing significantly to atmospheric carbon dioxide emissions. 
  • Due to its high ability to produce energy, green hydrogen can replace coal and help reduce the industry's power costs.


  • The ability to store H2 in either liquid or gaseous form is one of the few additional advantages of the gas. 
  • It can be stored using fuel cell technology. 
  • The ability to store more energy depends on the energy density of a system because hydrogen has the highest energy per mass of any fuel.

Negative aspects of Green Hydrogen 

Safety Issues

  • In terms of flammability and volatility, hydrogen ranks among the top substances. 
  • Due to its lack of colour and smell, leak detection is extremely difficult. 


  • Hydrogen production is more affordable than fossil fuels due to the electrolysis process. 
  • It costs more to produce green hydrogen than grey or blue hydrogen.

Difficulty in Transport 

  • It is lighter than helium because hydrogen is incredibly light and has low volumetric energy density. 
  • Nevertheless, it has a 2700 times lower energy density than gasoline. 
  • Pipelines and shipping containers make it simple to move gasoline. On that front, a hydrogen solution has yet to be discovered.

Applications of Green Hydrogen

    Agriculture Sector: 

  • Green Hydrogen in Agriculture as an Alternative to Fossil Fuels:
    • Green hydrogen has the potential to substitute conventional agricultural fertilizers by manufacturing ammonia from environmentally friendly sources.
    • Ammonia is an essential component in the manufacture of fertilizers, and the present manufacturing method depends on natural gas, a fossil fuel that contributes to greenhouse gas emissions.
    • In addition to being carbon-free and outperforming traditional fertilizers in terms of effectiveness and soil acidity, green ammonia is produced with the help of green hydrogen. 
      • However, making green ammonia at scale will call for substantial investments in facilities and the creation of new technologies. 
      • Currently, manufacturing green ammonia costs more than conventional extraction of ammonia, which could hinder its adoption soon.
  • Green Hydrogen-Powered Farm Machinery: 
    • Farming equipment such as harvesters, tractors, and irrigation systems require much energy. 
    • Hydrogen-powered farm equipment can substantially decrease emissions of greenhouse gases yet continue to provide the electricity needed to perform vital farm duties.
  • Green Hydrogen for Water Management: 
    • Water is an invaluable commodity; effective management is essential to agricultural sustainability. 
    • Green hydrogen may power desalination facilities that transform saltwater into freshwater, decreasing our need for finite resources.
  • Transportation Sector
    • Fuel Cell for Hydrogen:
      • A hydrogen fuel cell is a device that produces electricity, water, and heat from the chemical energy of hydrogen and oxygen. 
      • Hydrogen fuel cell automobiles emit no pollutants, which makes them a desirable alternative to gasoline and diesel-powered vehicles. 
      • Their range is greater than that of battery electric cars, and they are quick to refuel, which makes them more useful for travelling long distances.
  • Industrial Sector: 
    • Cost Savings: 
      • Green hydrogen is generated from excess renewable energy generated in off-peak times. 
      • The extra energy can generate green hydrogen, which can be stored and utilized when demand for it is high. 
      • This could lower energy costs and advance sustainable development.
    • Reliable: 
      • Green hydrogen is capable of being generated and stored on-site, making it a dependable and consistent energy source for industrial processes. 
      • This may lower the reliance on the power network and encourage energy independence.
    • Waste reduction:
      • The production of green hydrogen is possible with waste products like municipal solid waste and agricultural waste. 
      • This may contribute to waste reduction and sustainable development. 
    • Increase in Energy Efficiency: 
      • Fuel cells that run on green hydrogen use less energy than traditional combustion engines. 
      • Energy usage may be decreased as a result of this.

Difficulties in Green Hydrogen Implementation

  • Cost: 
    • Currently, green hydrogen is more expensive than conventional fossil fuels. 
    • The manufacturing, distribution, and storage of green hydrogen require specialized machinery and infrastructure, making it more costly than traditional fuels.
    • Nevertheless, green hydrogen prices will decrease over time due to technological advances and increased production.
  • Infrastructure: 
    • The widespread acceptance of green hydrogen necessitates the creation of a solid framework for its production, storage, and distribution.
    • In order to make the switch to green hydrogen easier, the infrastructure needs to be built in a way that is compatible with the existing energy infrastructure. 
  • Energy Storage: 
    • Green hydrogen requires renewable energy sources like wind, solar, and hydropower. 
    • The output of such sources can fluctuate over time. 
    • The creation of efficient solutions for energy storage is essential to allow for the widespread use of green hydrogen.
      • Storage methods such as batteries and hydrogen may preserve the extra electricity generated from renewable sources and offer an ongoing supply of renewable hydrogen.
  • Safety: 
    • High-flammability green hydrogen needs special handling and storage because it is a gas.
    • Establishing appropriate regulations and safety protocols is essential to guarantee the secure storage and handling of green hydrogen.
  • Public Acceptance: 
    • The adoption of green hydrogen depends on public acceptance. 
    • The general public needs to be informed about the advantages of green hydrogen and how it can help combat global warming.

Hydrogen's Green Future 

  • Power plants and other industries have long used hydrogen. 
  • Since the first half of the 19th century, this gas has been utilized in fuel cells for vehicles, airships, and spacecraft.
  • The importance of hydrogen will increase due to the global economy's inevitable decarburization.
  • To create favourable conditions for investors, the government and businesses must cooperate. 
  • International trade will be facilitated by developing common standards for the secure transportation and storage of large quantities of hydrogen fuel and assessing the environmental effects of different hydrogen sources.
  • The number of projects involving hydrogen has increased over the past year as investors bet on the possibility that hydrogen prices will drop, even though green hydrogen is still too expensive to compete with conventional hydrogen sources and other fuels.
  • A more sustainable future may be enabled by hydrogen if production costs fall by 50% by 2030, as predicted by the World Hydrogen Council.

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