Factors Affecting India’s Climate

Factors Affecting India'sIndia's Climate

India'sIndia's climate is referred to as monsoon-type. Southeast and South Asia are regions with this type of climate.

The country itself does experience varying climatic conditions, though. The least difference between daytime and nighttime temperatures is found in India'sIndia's coastal regions. The nighttime and daytime temperatures vary greatly in the interior.

Among Indian Monsoon'sMonsoon's key characteristics are

  • abrupt beginning (sudden burst)
  • Gradual advancement
  • gradual withdrawal
  • 'Winds' seasonal reversal
  • Seasons abruptly change when the monsoon winds completely reverse direction.
  • The abrupt transition from the sweltering summer to the monsoon or rainy season.
  • The southwest monsoons in the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal bring rainfall to the entire nation.
  • Except for along the Coromandel coast (TN coast), the northeastern winter monsoon does not produce much precipitation after absorbing moisture from the Bay of Bengal.

The Seasons

India'sIndia's climate follows definite seasonal patterns. From one season to the next, the weather significantly changes. The interior regions experience drastic temperature changes. Extreme temperatures are not common in coastal areas.

Winter, the period of cold weather

Mid-November marks the start of India'sIndia's cold weather season, which lasts through February. The most frigid months are December and January. The temperature drops as we travel northward from the south. While it is between 10 and 15 degrees Celsius in the north, the average wintertime temperature in the south is between 24 and 25 degrees.

Summer is a time of intense heat. 

From March to May, India experiences its hottest months. In the northwest of the country, May temperatures can reach 45 degrees. In Kerala and Karnataka, pre-monsoon showers are frequent toward the end of the summer. Due to their role in promoting early mango ripening in these states, they are frequently called "mango showers."

The Growing Monsoon (Wet Season)

The southern trade winds bring much moisture to the nation by early June. More than 250 cm of rainfall falls on the windward side of the Western Ghats. Unpredictability is a hallmark of the monsoon. It may cause droughts in one area while causing significant flooding in another. The arrival and retreat could be more consistent.

Retreating Monsoons (Transition Season)

The monsoons wane in strength between October and November. The direction of the sun is southward. By the beginning of October, the monsoon has withdrawn from the Northern Plains. There is a change from the hot, rainy season to the cold, dry winter season.

Distribution of Rainfall

Every year, about 400 cm of rain falls in some areas of India. Nevertheless, in Rajasthan and nearby Gujarat, Haryana, and Punjab, it is less than 60 cm. The remainder of the nation experiences average rainfall. Because of how monsoons work, annual rainfall varies greatly yearly.

Climatic Controls

The variables that regulate temperature variations in India'sIndia's climate are climatic controls. The major climatic controls are as follows:

  • Latitude: Due to the spherical nature of the earth, sunlight does not reach every location equally. As we travel from the equator to the poles, the temperature drops.
  • Altitude: The temperature drops as we ascend to higher altitudes from the earth's surface.
  • Pressure and wind system: The latitude and altitude of any location affect the pressure and wind system there. This has an appropriate impact on temperature.
  • Coastal areas are cooler than interior areas relative to the distance from the sea. Extreme weather conditions are more common, and their influence diminishes as the distance from the sea grows.
  • Ocean currents: An area's temperature will be reduced by cold ocean currents passing over it while warm currents raise its temperature.
  • Relief features: The walls preventing currents from entering the nation are known as relief features. High mountains block winds that are hot or cold.

The factors influencing India's climate


As far as we know, the earth's tropical and sub-tropical regions are separated by the Tropic of Cancer, which passes through the middle of the Rann of Kuchchh from Mizoram in the east to Mizoram in the west. Thus, the climate of India demonstrates characteristics found in both tropical and sub-tropical climates. 


India is home to mountains that are 6,000 meters or higher. The Himalayas shield India from the cold winds coming from central Asia. India has a milder winter than Central Asia does because of this. 

Winds and pressure

Unusual wind and pressure patterns can be found in India. High pressure prevails during the winter in the northern region close to the Himalayas. Because of the lower pressure, winds from this region move southward. Lower pressure can be found in the north during the summer. This has caused the wind to shift its direction. The direction of the southerly winds is north. These winds have a significant impact on India'sIndia's climate.

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