1.    With reference to ‘Living Root Bridges’ consider the following statements:

1.    Living root bridges are the aerial bridges that are built by weaving and manipulating the roots of the Indian fig tree.
2.    They have been serving as connectors for generations in the Indian state of Meghalaya.

Which of the above given statements is/are correct?
(a)    1 only
(b)    2 only
(c)    Both 1 and 2
(d)    Neither 1 nor 2

Explanation:
Living Root Bridges
●    Living root bridges (also known as Jing Kieng Jri) are the aerial bridges that are built by weaving and manipulating the roots of the Indian rubber tree. Hence Statement 1 is incorrect.
●    A root bridge uses traditional tribal knowledge to train the roots of the Indian rubber tree (found in abundance in the area) to grow laterally across a stream bed resulting in a living bridge of roots.
●    It spans between 15 and 250 feet and is built over centuries.
●    They have been serving as connectors for generations in the Indian state of Meghalaya.
●    The bridges are primarily a means to cross streams and rivers.
●    They have also become world-famous tourist attractions, two most popular tourist spots are- Riwai Root Bridge and Umshiang Double Decker Bridge.
●    Hence Statement 2 is correct.

Source:
https://www.thehindu.com/todays-paper/bridge-with-a-life/article37993600.ece

2.    With reference to  Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC) , consider the following statements:

1.    It is the second largest intergovernmental organization after the United Nations with a membership of 57 states.
2.    India is  a member of the OIC.
3.    It has its Headquarters in the United Arab Emirates.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 and 3 only
(b) 1 only
(c) 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3

Explanation:
The Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC)
●    It is the second largest intergovernmental organization after the United Nations with a membership of 57 states. Hence Statement 1 is correct
●    It is the collective voice of the Muslim world. It endeavors to safeguard and protect the interests of the Muslim world in the spirit of promoting international peace and harmony among various people of the world.
●    It was established upon a decision of the historical summit which took place in Rabat, Kingdom of Morocco on the 25th of September 1969.
●    India is not a member of the OIC. However, India was invited as a guest of honour at 46th Session of the Council of Foreign Minister in 2019. 2019 is the 50th anniversary of OIC.  Hence Statement 2 is incorrect.
●    Headquarters: Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Hence Statement 3 is incorrect

Source:
https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/jaishankar-external-affairs-minister-india-central-asian-dialogue/article37990024.ece


3.    With reference to ‘Asian Waterbird Census(AWC)’ consider the following statements:

1.    The census covers the entire part of the Central Asian Flyway only.
2.    The AWC is an integral part of the global waterbird monitoring programme.

Which of the above given statements is/are correct?
(a)    1 only
(b)    2 only
(c)    Both 1 and 2
(d)    Neither 1 nor 2

Explanation:
Asian Waterbird Census(AWC)
●    Every January, thousands of volunteers across Asia and Australasia visit wetlands in their country and count waterbirds. This citizen science programme is the Asian Waterbird Census (AWC).
●    The AWC was initiated in 1987 in the Indian subcontinent. The census covers the entire East Asian – Australasian Flyway and a large part of the Central Asian Flyway. Hence Statement 1 is incorrect.
●    The main objective is to obtain annual information of waterbird populations at wetlands in the region, the status of wetlands, and encourage interest in waterbirds and wetlands among the public and thereby promote conservation.
●    The AWC is an integral part of the global waterbird monitoring programme, the International Waterbird Census (IWC), coordinated by Wetlands International. Hence Statement 2 is correct.

Source:
https://www.thehindu.com/news/cities/Coimbatore/decline-in-number-of-migratory-birds-at-nanjarayan-tank/article37905093.ece


4.    This land is full of plateaus and gorges. Ken river flows through this terrain. Vindhyas hill runs in North-East to South-West Direction through this National Park. The dominating vegetation in Reserve is Dry Deciduous forest interspersed with grasslands. The region is also famous for Panna diamond mining. Ken Gharial Wildlife Sanctuary lies on the northern side of it.

Identify the Tiger Reserve using the following options:
(a)    Kanha Tiger Reserve.
(b)    Bandhavgarh Tiger Reserve.
(c)    Panna Tiger Reserve
(d)    Pench Tiger Reserve.

Explanation:
Panna Tiger Reserve
●    The Panna tiger reserve is situated in the Vindhya mountain range in the northern part of Madhya Pradesh.
●    Ken river (a tributary of the Yamuna River) flows through the reserve.
●    The region is also famous for Panna diamond mining.
●    Ken-Betwa river interlinking project will be located within the tiger reserve.
●    Hence Option (c) is correct.

Source:
https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/other-states/indian-desert-cat-spotted-in-mps-panna-tiger-reserve/article37993332.ece

5.    With reference to ‘Desert Cats’ consider the following statements:

1.    It is seen only in the Thar desert, Rajasthan in India.
2.    Protection Status : Wildlife protection Act’s: Schedule-I.


Which of the above given statements is/are correct?
(a)    1 only
(b)    2 only
(c)    Both 1 and 2
(d)    Neither 1 nor 2

Explanation:
Desert Cats
●    It is usually a creature of the Thar desert in Rajasthan, and inhabits scrub desert areas.
●    The cat occurs in arid and semi-arid zones of western India which includes Gujarat, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra up to Pune and Nagpur. Hence Statement 1 is incorrect.
●    This cat is found in deserts and can survive without water.
●    The toes of the species have cushion-like hair which help it balance the fluctuating desert temperatures.

●    Protection Status:
○    IUCN Red List: Least Concern
○    CITES: Appendix-II
○    Wildlife protection Act’s: Schedule-I.
●    Hence Statement 2 is correct.

Source:
https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/other-states/indian-desert-cat-spotted-in-mps-panna-tiger-reserve/article37993332.ece