1.    Consider the following statements on National Policy On Electronics :
1.    It is aimed at achieving a turnover of 1 billion dollars for the electronics sector by the year 2025 while generating employment opportunities for one crore people.
2.    It requires creation of a Sovereign Patent Fund (SPF) for the promotion, development and acquisition of Intellectual Property.

Which of the above given statements is/are correct?
(a)    1 only
(b)    2 only
(c)    Both 1 and 2
(d)    Neither 1 nor 2

Explanation:
National Policy On Electronics
●    The policy envisions placing India as a global hub for Electronics System Design and Manufacturing (ESDM).
●    It is aimed at achieving a turnover of 400 billion dollars for the electronics sector by the year 2025 while generating employment opportunities for one crore people. Hence Statement 1 is incorrect.
●    Its objective is also to produce 1 billion mobile handsets in India by the year 2025.
●    It envisages creation of an enabling environment for the electronics industries to compete globally.
●    It requires creation of a Sovereign Patent Fund (SPF) for the promotion, development and acquisition of Intellectual Property (IPs) in the ESDM sector. Hence Statement 2 is correct.

Source:
https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/rs-76000-cr-semiconductor-manufacturing-scheme-gets-cabinet-nod/article37962605.ece

1. Which of the following are properties of Semiconductors?
1. They are formed due to covalent bonding.
2. It has a negative temperature coefficent.
3. Copper,Aluminum are some of the examples of SemiConductors.

Select the correct answer using the code given below:
(a) 1 and 2 only
(b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 1  and 3 only
(d) 1, 2, and 3.


Explanation:
●    Semiconductors conduct the electric current less than conductor and greater than Insulator.
●    It has four valence electrons in its outermost orbit.
●    They are formed due to covalent bonding. Hence Statement 1 is correct.
●    It has a negative temperature coefficent. Hence Statement 2 is correct.
●    Copper,Aluminum are some of the examples of Conductors while silicon,
Germanium are semiconductors. Hence Statement 3 is incorrect.

Source:
https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/rs-76000-cr-semiconductor-manufacturing-scheme-gets-cabinet-nod/article37962605.ece

3.    With reference to The  Enforcement Directorate (ED), consider the following statements:
1.    It is an economic intelligence agency responsible for enforcing economic laws and fighting economic crime in India.
2.    It was formed with the purpose of handling Exchange Control Law violations under the Central Vigilance Commission Act, 2003.
3.    ED is administered by the Department of Personnel, Ministry of Personnel, Pension & Public Grievances.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 and 3 only
(b) 1 only
(c) 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3 only

Explanation:
●    The Directorate General of Economic Enforcement (Enforcement Directorate) is a law enforcement and economic intelligence agency responsible for enforcing economic laws and fighting economic crime in India. Hence Statement 1 is correct.
●    It was formed with the purpose of handling Exchange Control Law violations under the Foreign Exchange Regulation Act,1947. Hence Statement 2 is incorrect.
●    Initially established under the Department of Economic Affairs in 1956 as an ‘Enforcement Unit’, it was later shifted to the Department of Revenue for administration in 1960.
●    It was renamed as the Enforcement Directorate (ED) in 1957.
●    Now, the Enforcement Directorate (ED) is administered by the Department of Revenue under the Ministry of Finance. Hence Statement 3 is incorrect.
●    The ED has its headquarters in New Delhi and has many regional offices all over the country.
●    It is headed by the Director of Enforcement, who is an IRS officer (Indian Revenue Service).


Source:
https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/lok-sabha-passes-bills-to-extend-cbi-ed-directors-tenures-up-to-max-5-years/article37915325.ece



4.    With reference to Speaker, Consider the following statements :

1.    No specific qualifications are prescribed for being elected as the speaker
2.    So far no members not belonging to the ruling party were elected to the office of the Speaker.
Which of the above given statements is/are correct?
(a)    1 only
(b)    2 only
(c)    Both 1 and 2
(d)    Neither 1 nor 2

Explanation:
Speaker
●    No specific qualifications are prescribed for being elected as the speaker.  Hence Statement 1 is correct.
●    The constitution states that the Speaker must be a member of the House but an understanding of the constitution and conventions of the Parliament is considered a major asset.
●    The House elects its presiding officer by a simple majority of members present, who vote in the House.
●    Usually, a member belonging to the ruling party is elected Speaker.
●    There are also instances when members not belonging to the ruling party were elected to the office of the Speaker.
●    GMC Balayogi and Manohar Joshi belonging to the TDP and the Shiv Sena respectively served as the Speaker in the 12th and 13th Lok Sabha during the NDA coalition headed by the BJP.
●    Hence Statement 2 is incorrect.

Source:
https://www.thehindu.com/opinion/op-ed/the-speaker-who-stifled-debate/article37964743.ece

5.    With reference to Fundamental Duties, Consider the following statements :
1.    The idea of Fundamental Duties is inspired from the Constitution of the USA.
2.    These were incorporated in Part IV-A of the Constitution by the 44th Constitutional Amendment Act, 1976 on the recommendations of the Swaran Singh Committee.
Which of the above given statements is/are correct?
(a)    1 only
(b)    2 only
(c)    Both 1 and 2
(d)    Neither 1 nor 2

Explanation:
Fundamental Duties
●    The idea of Fundamental Duties is inspired from the Constitution of Russia.  Hence Statement 1 is incorrect.
●    These were incorporated in Part IV-A of the Constitution by the 42nd Constitutional Amendment Act, 1976 on the recommendations of the Swaran Singh Committee. Hence Statement 2 is incorrect.
●    Originally 10 in number, one more duty was added through the 86th Constitutional Amendment Act, 2002. All the eleven duties are listed in Article 51-A of the Constitution (the sole Article in Part-IV-A).
●    The fundamental duties serve as a reminder to citizens that while enjoying their rights, they have also to be quite conscious of duties they owe to their country, their society and to their fellow-citizens.
●    However, like the Directive Principles, the duties are also non-justiciable in nature.

Source:
https://www.thehindu.com/opinion/lead/a-false-conflation-between-duties-and-rights/article37963993.ece