1. With reference to the Graded Response Action Plan (GRAP), consider the following statements:
1. The GRAP was formulated to cover all of India.
2. The GRAP institutionalized measures to be taken when air quality deteriorates.
3. The GRAP works only as an emergency measure.
Which of the statements given above are correct?
(a) 1 and 2 only
(b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
Explanation:
Some stricter measures to fight air pollution will come into force in Delhi and its neighbouring National Capital Region (NCR) towns, as part of the Graded Response Action Plan (GRAP). The action plan has been in effect for three years in Delhi and NCR.
Approved by the Supreme Court in 2016, the plan was formulated after several meetings that the Environment Pollution (Prevention and Control) Authority (EPCA) held with state government representatives and experts. The result was a plan that institutionalised measures to be taken when air quality deteriorates.
GRAP works only as an emergency measure. As such, the plan does not include action by various state governments to be taken throughout the year to tackle industrial, vehicular and combustion emissions. The plan is incremental in nature — therefore, when the air quality moves from ‘Poor’ to ‘Very Poor’, the measures listed under both sections have to be followed.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/cities/Delhi/four-years-on-grap-yet-to-evolve/article37816208.ece

2. Which among the following conditions are favorable for the formation of Cyclones?
1.  Large sea surface with temperature higher than 27° C
2. Presence of the Coriolis force
3. Small variations in the vertical wind speed
4. A pre-existing weak low-pressure area
Select the correct answer using the codes given below:
(a) 1 and 4 only
(b) 1, 2 and 3 only
(c) 2, 3 and 4 only
(d) 1, 2, 3 and 4
Explanation:
Conditions favorable for the formation of Cyclone:
•    Large sea surface with temperature higher than 27° C,
•    Presence of the Coriolis force enough to create a cyclonic vortex,
•    Small variations in the vertical wind speed,
•    A pre-existing weak low-pressure area or low-level-cyclonic circulation,
•    Upper divergence above the sea level system,

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/other-states/odisha-puts-14-districts-on-cyclone-alert/article37815201.ece

3. Consider the following statements regarding the North Atlantic Treaty Organization’s (NATO):
1. NATO's primary goals are the collective defence of its members and the maintenance of a democratic peace in the North Atlantic area.
2. The collective defence principle of NATO states that ‘an attack against one ally is considered as an attack against all allies’.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2
Explanation:

North Atlantic Treaty Organization’s (NATO):

Formation: NATO was established by the North Atlantic Treaty (also called the Washington Treaty) of 4th April, 1949, by the United States, Canada, and several Western European nations to provide collective security against the Soviet Union.

It is headquartered at Brussels, Belgium.
The collective defence principle enshrined in NATO’s Article V states that “an attack against one ally is considered as an attack against all allies”.

NATO’s Forces: NATO has a military and civilian headquarters and an integrated military command structure but very few forces or assets are exclusively its own.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/todays-paper/tp-international/stop-nato-expansion-russia-tells-us/article37816663.ece

4. Consider the following statements regarding the Green Hydrogen:
1. Hydrogen when produced by electrolysis using renewable energy is known as Green Hydrogen which has no carbon footprint.
2. Green Hydrogen can act as an energy storage option, which would be essential to meet intermittencies (of renewable energy) in the future.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2
Explanation:

What is green hydrogen?
Hydrogen when produced by electrolysis using renewable energy is known as Green Hydrogen which has no carbon  footprint.
 Significance of Green Hydrogen:
•    Green hydrogen energy is vital for India to meet its Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC) Targets and ensure regional and national energy security, access and availability.
•    Green Hydrogen can act as an energy storage option, which would be essential to meet intermittencies (of renewable energy) in the future.
•    In terms of mobility, for long distance mobilisations for either urban freight movement within cities and states or for passengers, Green Hydrogen can be used in railways, large ships, buses or trucks, etc.
Source: https://www.thehindu.com/business/lt-renew-partner-to-focus-on-green-hydrogen-business-in-india/article37809934.ece

5. Which among the following methods can be used to determine GDP?
1. Expenditure Method
2. Production or Output Method
3. Income Method
Select the correct answer using the codes given below:
(a) 1 and 2 only
(b) 1 and 3 only
(c) 2 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
Explanation:
GDP can be determined via three primary methods. All three methods should yield the same figure when correctly calculated. These three approaches are often termed the expenditure approach, the output (or production) approach, and the income approach.
Source: https://www.thehindu.com/business/Economy/china-advisers-to-moot-lower-gdp-goal/article37811891.ece#:~:text=Advisers%20to%20China's%20government%20will,growing%20challenges%20to%20the%20outlook.