1. With reference to the System of Air Quality and Weather Forecasting and Research (SAFAR), consider the following statements:
1. SAFAR is a national initiative introduced by the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change.
2. SAFAR measures the air quality of a metropolitan city, by measuring the overall pollution level and the location-specific air quality of the city.
3. The system is indigenously developed by the Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology (IITM), Pune and is operationalized by the India Metrological Department (IMD).
Which of the statements given above are correct?
(a) 1 and 2 only
(b) 1 and 3 only
(c) 2 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
Explanation:
Through SAFAR know the City Air Quality- Over all city pollution and Location specific Air Quality- A relative contribution of different environments in a city
Under the plan scheme “Metropolitan Advisories for Cities for Sports, Tourism (Metropolitan Air Quality and Weather Services), Ministry of Earth Sciences (MoES), Govt. of India, has introduced a major national initiative, "System of Air Quality and Weather Forecasting and Research" known as "SAFAR" for greater metropolitan cities of India to provide location specific information on air quality in near real time and its forecast 1-3 days in advance for the first time in India. It has been combined with the early warning system on weather parameters. The SAFAR system is developed by Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology, Pune, along with ESSO partner institutions namely India Meteorological Department (IMD) and National Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasting (NCMRWF). The implementation of SAFAR is made possible with an active collaboration with local municipal corporations and various local educational institutions and governmental agencies in that Metro city. The ultimate objective of the project is to increase awareness among general public regarding the air quality in their city well in advance so that appropriate mitigation measures and systematic action can be taken up for betterment of air quality and related health issues. It engineers awareness drive by educating public, prompting self-mitigation and also to help develop mitigation strategies for policy makers.

Source: http://safar.tropmet.res.in/ABOUT%20SAFAR-1-2-Details
https://www.thehindu.com/news/cities/Delhi/share-of-stubble-burning-in-delhispm25-count-146-in-november/article37781255.ece

2. Consider the following statements regarding Char Dham Devasthanam Management Act:
1. The act was aimed at bringing the Char Dham of Badrinath, Kedarnath, Gangotri and Yamunotri and 49 other temples under its purview.
2. The Minister of Religious Affairs was the Chairman of the board and the Chief Minister was the vice chairman.
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2
Explanation:
Uttarakhand CM has announced the withdrawal of the Char Dham Devasthanam Management Act, which was made an act in 2019.
The act was aimed at bringing the Char Dham of Badrinath, Kedarnath, Gangotri and Yamunotri and 49 other temples under the purview of a proposed shrine board.
As per the Act, the CM is the Chairman, whereas the minister for religious affairs is the vice-chairman of the board.
The shrine board was constituted as the highest governing body for the management of the temples. Its power ranges from policy formulation to execution and budgetary powers including management of jewellery and properties vested in the temples, among others.
Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/other-states/uttarakhand-government-withdraws-char-dham-devasthanam-board-act/article37769540.ece

3. Which among the following are ways by which Indian Citizenship can be renounced?
1. By Renunciation
2. By Termination
3. By Deprivation
Select the correct answer using the codes given below:
(a) 1 and 2 only
(b) 1 and 3 only
(c) 2 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
Explanation:
The citizenship act 1955 prescribes three ways of losing citizenship:
1. By renunciation:
Any citizen of India of full age and capacity can make a declaration renouncing Indian citizenship
Such a declaration may not be accepted during war.
Even the minor children of the person who renounces citizenship stands to lose their Indian citizenship. However, when their children attain the age of eighteen, he may resume Indian citizenship.
2. By termination:
If a citizen of India voluntarily acquires the citizenship of another country, then he loses the citizenship of India However, this provision does not apply during times of war.
3. By deprivation:
Compulsory termination of Indian citizenship by the Central government, in the following conditions:
•    Obtained the citizenship by fraud.
•    Citizen has shown disloyalty to the Constitution of India.
•    Citizen has unlawfully traded or communicated during the times of war.
•    Within 5 years of naturalization, the said citizen is imprisoned for a term of two years.
•    Citizen has been ordinarily resident out of India for a period of 7 years.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/6-lakh-indians-renounced-citizenship/article37777526.ece

4. With reference to the Comptroller and Auditor General (CAG), consider the following statements:
1. Article 76 provides for an independent office of the CAG.
2. CAG is the head of the Indian Audit and Accounts Department.
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2
Explanation:
 Article 148 provides for an independent office of the CAG. It is the supreme audit institution of India.
CAG: Head of the Indian Audit and Accounts Department - created in 1753.
Guardian of the public purse and controls the entire financial system of the country at both the levels–the Centre and the state.
One of the bulwarks of the democratic system of government in India.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/cag-flags-delays-in-armys-offloading-model/article37778033.ece#:~:text=The%20Army's%20ambitious%20plan%20for,its%20report%20tabled%20in%20the

5. Consider the following statements with regard to Fiscal Deficit:
1. It is the condition when the expenditure of the government exceeds its revenue in a year.
2. Fiscal deficit is calculated both in absolute terms and as a percentage of the country’s gross domestic product (GDP).
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2
Explanation:
A country’s fiscal balance is measured by its government’s revenue vis-a-vis its expenditure in a given financial year. Fiscal deficit, the condition when the expenditure of the government exceeds its revenue in a year, is the difference between the two. Fiscal deficit is calculated both in absolute terms and as a percentage of the country’s gross domestic product (GDP).
Source:  https://www.thehindu.com/business/Economy/centres-fiscal-deficit-at-547-lakh-crore-at-end-october/article37771560.ece
https://www.business-standard.com/about/what-is-fiscal-deficit