1. The Economically Weaker Section (EWS) Quota came into existence by which Constitution Amendment Act?
(a) 101st Constitution Amendment Act
(b) 103rd Constitution Amendment Act
(c) 102nd Constitution Amendment Act
(d) 104th Constitution Amendment Act
Explanation: Option (b) is correct
The Union Government has taken a considered decision to revisit the criteria for determining the economically weaker sections in terms of the provisions of the Explanation to Article 15 of the Constitution inserted by the Constitution (103rd Amendment) Act 2019.
Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/centre-informs-sc-that-it-would-revisit-8-lakh-annual-income-limit-for-ews-category-for-neet-pg/article37679900.ece

2. Consider the following statements with regard to the Goods and Services (GST) Council:
1. The vote of the central government shall have a weightage of two-third of the total votes cast in the meeting.
2. The votes of all the state governments combined shall have a weightage of one-thirds of the total votes cast in that meeting.  
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2
Explanation:
The decisions of the Council are taken at its meetings. One-half of the total numbers of members of the Council is the quorum for conducting a meeting. Every decision of the Council is to be taken by a majority of not less than three-fourths of the weighted votes of the members present and voting at the meeting.
The decision is taken in accordance with the following principles:
(i) The vote of the central government shall have a weightage of one-third of the total votes cast in the meeting.
(ii) The votes of all the state governments combined shall have a weightage of two-thirds of the total votes cast in that meeting.
Source: https://www.thehindu.com/business/Economy/bring-in-three-rate-gst-structure-says-finance-ministry-think-tank-study/article37692367.ece

3. With respect to the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA), consider the following statements:
1. The MGNREGA provides a legal guarantee for three hundred days of employment in every financial year to adult members of any rural household willing to do public work-related unskilled manual work at the statutory minimum wage.
2. The Ministry of Rural Development (MRD), Govt of India is monitoring the entire implementation of this scheme in association with state governments.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2
Explanation:
The Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA), also known as Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (MNREGS) is Indian legislation enacted on August 25, 2005. The MGNREGA provides a legal guarantee for one hundred days of employment in every financial year to adult members of any rural household willing to do public work-related unskilled manual work at the statutory minimum wage. The Ministry of Rural Development (MRD), Govt of India is monitoring the entire implementation of this scheme in association with state governments.
Source: https://vikaspedia.in/agriculture/policies-and-schemes/rural-employment-related-1/mgnrega/rural-employment-related
https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/10000-crore-more-for-mgnrega-scheme/article37689123.ece

4. Consider the following statements:
1. The fourth Scorpene class conventional submarine, INS Vela is commissioned into the Navy.
2. Six Scorpene submarines are being built under Project-75.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2
Explanation:
The fourth Scorpene class conventional submarine, INS Vela, was commissioned into the Navy in the presence of Chief of the Naval Staff Admiral Karambir Singh at a ceremony in Mumbai.
“Vela has taken the ‘Make in India’ spirit a notch higher with the fitment indigenised battery cells, which power a very silent permanently magnetised propulsion motor,” the Navy said in a statement. Construction of the submarine commenced with the first cutting of steel on July 14, 2009 and it was launched and named Vela on May 6, 2019.
Six Scorpene submarines are being built under Project-75 by Mazagaon Dock Ltd. (MDL), Mumbai, under technology transfer from Naval Group of France under a $3.75-bn deal signed in October 2005.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/navy-commissions-submarine-ins-vela/article37677238.ece

5. Which among the following states has fewer women than men?
1. Gujarat   
2. Maharashtra
3. Haryana
4. Madhya Pradesh
Select the correct answer using the codes given below:
(a) 3 and 4 only
(b) 2, 3 and 4 only
(c) 1, 2 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2, 3 and 4
Explanation:  
However, sex ratio at birth for children born in the past five years only improved from 919 per 1,000 males in 2015-16 to 929 per 1,000, underscoring that boys, on average, continued to have better odds of survival than girls.
Most Indian States and Union Territories (UTs) had more women than men, the NFHS-5 shows. The States that had fewer women than men included Gujarat, Maharashtra, Arunachal Pradesh, Haryana, Madhya Pradesh and Punjab and Union Territories such as Jammu & Kashmir, Chandigarh, Delhi, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Dadra and Nagar Haveli, and Ladakh.
All of these States and UTs, however, showed improvements in the population increase of women.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/family-health-survey-suggests-more-women-than-men-in-india/article37678156.ece