1. Tripura shares its borders with which Indian states?
1. Assam
2. Mizoram
3. Nagaland
4. Manipur
Select the correct answer using the codes given below:
(a) 1 and 2 only
(b) 3 and 4 only
(c) 1, 2 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2, 3 and 4
Explanation:
Tripura is a state in North-East India. It shares borders with Bangladesh, Mizoram and Assam. Tripura is surrounded by Bangladesh on its north, south and west. The length of its international border is 856 km (84 per cent of its total border).
Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/tmc-mps-protest-at-mha-over-tripura-violence-seek-meeting-with-amit-shah/article37621011.ece

2. With regard to Dengue, consider the following statements:
1. The virus is transmitted to humans through the bites of infected female mosquitoes, primarily the Aedes aegypti mosquito.
2. Mosquitoes can become infected from people who are viremic with dengue.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2
Explanation:
Mosquito-to-human transmission
The virus is transmitted to humans through the bites of infected female mosquitoes, primarily the Aedes aegypti mosquito. Other species within the Aedes genus can also act as vectors, but their contribution is secondary to Aedes aegypti.
After feeding on an DENV-infected person, the virus replicates in the mosquito midgut, before it disseminates to secondary tissues, including the salivary glands. The time it takes from ingesting the virus to actual transmission to a new host is termed the extrinsic incubation period (EIP). The EIP takes about 8-12 days when the ambient temperature is between 25-28°C. Variations in the extrinsic incubation period are not only influenced by ambient temperature; a number of factors such as the magnitude of daily temperature fluctuations, virus genotype, and initial viral concentration can also alter the time it takes for a mosquito to transmit virus. Once infectious, the mosquito is capable of transmitting virus for the rest of its life.
Human-to-mosquito transmission
Mosquitoes can become infected from people who are viremic with DENV. This can be someone who has a symptomatic dengue infection, someone who is yet to have a symptomatic infection (they are pre-symptomatic), but also people who show no signs of illness as well (they are asymptomatic).
Human-to-mosquito transmission can occur up to 2 days before someone shows symptoms of the illness , up to 2 days after the fever has resolved.
Risk of mosquito infection is positively associated with high viremia and high fever in the patient; conversely, high levels of DENV-specific antibodies are associated with a decreased risk of mosquito infection (Nguyen et al. 2013 PNAS). Most people are viremic for about 4-5 days, but viremia can last as long as 12 days.
Source: https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/dengue-and-severe-dengue
https://www.thehindu.com/news/cities/Delhi/dengue-cases-cross-7000-mark-in-city/article37636181.ece

3. Consider the following statements regarding the Rohingaya’s:
1. The Rohingya people are a stateless Indo-Aryan ethnic group who predominantly follow Islam and reside in Rakhine State of Bangladesh.
2. The Rohingya were denied citizenship in 1982 by the government of Bangladesh.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2
Explanation:
The Rohingya people are stateless Indo-Aryan ethnic group who predominantly follow Islam and reside in Rakine state, Myanmar (previously known as Burma). Before the displacement crisis in 2017, when over 740,000 fled to Bangladesh, an estimated 1.4 million Rohingya lived in Myanmar. Described by journalists and news outlets as one of the most persecuted minorities in the world, the Rohingya are denied citizenship under the 1982 Myanmar nationality law. There are also restrictions on their freedom of movement, access to state education and civil service jobs.
Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/two-rohingya-families-have-no-links-to-is-or-isi-kerala/article37635731.ece

4.  With reference to the Indian Council of Medical Research, consider the following statements:
1. Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) is the apex body in India for the formulation, coordination and promotion of biomedical research.
2. It is funded by the Government of India through the Department of Health Research, Ministry of Health & Family Welfare.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2
Explanation:
Indian Council of Medical Research
    Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) is the apex body in India for the formulation, coordination and promotion of biomedical research.
    Its mandate is to conduct, coordinate and implement medical research for the benefit of the Society; translating medical innovations into products/processes and introducing them into the public health system.
    It is funded by the Government of India through the Department of Health Research, Ministry of Health & Family Welfare.
Source: https://www.thehindu.com/sci-tech/science/no-scientific-evidence-to-support-need-for-booster-vaccine-dose-against-covid-19-icmr-chief/article37624539.ece

5. Australia is present in which ocean?
(a) Pacific Ocean
(b) Indian Ocean
(c) Atlantic Ocean
(d) Arctic Ocean
Explanation: Option (a) is correct
Most of Australia and Oceania is under the Pacific, a vast body of water that is larger than all the Earth's continental landmasses and islands combined. The name “Oceania” justly establishes the Pacific Ocean as the defining characteristic of the continent.
Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/international/australia-signs-sub-deal-with-us-uk/article37633367.ece