1.    With reference to the Indian Judiciary, consider the following statements regarding the Collegium System:

1.    It is the system of appointment and transfer of judges provided in the Constitution.

2.    In India, judges of the higher judiciary are appointed only through the collegium system.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a)    1 only
    
(b)    2 only

(c)    Both 1 and 2

(d)    Neither 1 nor 2
Explanation
Statement 1 is incorrect: Collegium System is the system of appointment and transfer of judges that has evolved through judgments of the SC, and not by an Act of Parliament or by a provision of the Constitution.
Statement 2 is correct: Judges of the higher judiciary are appointed only through the collegium system and the government has a role only after names have been decided by the collegium.
The SC collegium is headed by the CJI and comprises four other senior most judges of the court.
A HC collegium is led by its Chief Justice and four other senior most judges of that court.
Source: https://www.thehindu.com/todays-paper/7-out-of-106-names-suggested-by-collegium-cleared-so-far-cji/article36801372.ece

2.    The terms ‘Langas’ and ‘Manganiyars’ were recently in the news. These are:

(a)    Buddhist monks in western part of India.

(b)    Muslim musicians residing in Rajasthan.

(c)    Religious rituals

(d)    Handicraft techniques prevalent in South India.
Explanation
Option b is correct: The Langas and Manganiyars are hereditary communities of Muslim musicians residing mostly in western Rajasthan’s Jaisalmer and Barmer districts and in Pakistan’s Tharparkar and Sanghar districts in Sindh.
The iconic and internationally acclaimed folk artistes have, however, been hit hard by the COVID­19 pandemic that stopped their performances in India and abroad and poses a challenge to the very survival of the popular arts.
Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/other-states/future-proofing-the-langa-manganiyar-heritage/article36794789.ece

3.    Consider the following statements regarding the Election Commission of India:

1.    It is an autonomous constitutional authority.

2.    The commission consists of one Chief Election Commissioner and not more than two Election Commissioners.

3.    Chief Election Commissioner holds office during the pleasure of the President.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a)    1 only

(b)    1 and 2 only

(c)    3 only

(d)    1,2 and 3
Explanation
Statement 1 is correct: The Election Commission of India is an autonomous constitutional authority responsible for administering Union and State election processes in India.
Statement 2 is incorrect: The Election Commission shall consist of the Chief Election Commissioner and such number of other Election Commissioners, if any, as the President may from time to time fix.
The commission consists of one Chief Election Commissioner and two Election Commissioners.
The President appoints Chief Election Commissioner and Election Commissioners.
Statement 3 is incorrect: They have a fixed tenure of six years, or up to the age of 65 years, whichever is earlier.
Source: https://www.thehindu.com/todays-paper/tp-national/trinamool-spent-rs-154-cr-on-bengal-polls-says-eci-report/article36801273.ece

4.    Consider the following statements regarding the United Nations General Assembly:

1.    Its president is elected every three year.

2.    It is the only United Nations body with universal representation.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a)    1 only
    
(b)    2 only

(c)    Both 1 and 2

(d)    Neither 1 nor 2
Explanation
The General Assembly is the main deliberative, policymaking and representative organ of the UN.
Statement 2 is correct: All 193 Member States of the UN are represented in the General Assembly, making it the only UN body with universal representation.
Statement 1 is incorrect: The President of the General Assembly is elected each year by assembly to serve a one-year term of office.
Source: https://www.thehindu.com/todays-paper/tp-national/i-got-covishield-ive-survived-unga-chief/article36801300.ece

5.    Consider the following statements regarding the Assam Accord:

1.    It was signed between representatives of the Government of India and the leaders of the Assam Movement.

2.    It sets a cut-off date of 24th March 1985 for the detection of illegal foreigners in Assam.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a)    1 only
    
(b)    2 only

(c)    Both 1 and 2

(d)    Neither 1 nor 2
Explanation
Statement 1 is correct: Assam Accord was a tripartite accord signed between the Government of India, State Government of Assam and the leaders of the Assam Movement in 1985.
The signing of the Accord led to the conclusion of a six-year agitation that was launched by the All Assam Students’ Union (AASU) in 1979, demanding the identification and deportation of illegal immigrants from Assam.
Statement 2 is incorrect: It sets a cut-off of midnight of 24th March 1971, for the detection of illegal foreigners in Assam.
Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/other-states/panel-formed-on-implementing-all-assam-accord-clauses/article36795485.ece