1. Consider following about the Purchasing Managers’ Index (PMI):
1. PMI is calculated only for the manufacturing sector not for service sector.
2. PMI above 50 denotes an expansion while PMI below 50 denotes a contraction in activity.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a)    1 only
(b)    2 only
(c)    both 1 and 2
(d)    neither 1 nor 2
Explanation: Option (b) is correct
PMI or a Purchasing Managers’ Index (PMI) is an indicator of business activity -- both in the manufacturing and services sectors. It is a survey-based measures that asks the respondents about changes in their perception of some key business variables from the month before. It is calculated separately for the manufacturing and services sectors and then a composite index is constructed.

It is an economic indicator that is calculated from monthly surveys of purchasing managers and supply executives from specific companies. PMI Manufacturing gives an indication of the economic health of the manufacturing sector. The most followed PMI readings come from Markit and Institute of Supply Management. To arrive at PMI, a questionnaire seeking factual information on variables such as new orders, output, employment, supplier deliveries, inventories, new export orders and prices are sent to purchasing managers of business enterprises and they are asked if these factors are above or below the level of the previous month.
A figure above 50 denotes expansion in business activity. Anything below 50 denotes contraction. Higher the difference from this mid-point greater the expansion or contraction. The rate of expansion can also be judged by comparing the PMI with that of the previous month data. If the figure is higher than the previous month’s then the econ-omy is expanding at a faster rate. If it is lower than the previous month then it is growing at a lower rate.
Statement 1 is incorrect:
PMI is an indicator of business activity -- both in the manufacturing and services sectors. It is calculated separately for the manufacturing and services sectors and then a composite index is constructed.

Statement 2 is correct:
A figure above 50 denotes expansion in business activity. Anything below 50 denotes contraction.
Source: https://www.thehindu.com/business/indias-sept-manufacturing-pmi-sees-fastest-pace-of-growth-in-over-8-years/article32739692.ece
https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/economy/indicators/what-is-purchasing-managers-index-pmi/articleshow/6259031.cms?from=mdr
https://www.thehindubusinessline.com/opinion/columns/slate/all-you-wanted-to-know-about/article33060375.ece

2. “Gupkar Alliance” sometimes mentioned in news, in context of:
(a) Punjab
(b) Northeast India
(c) Jammu and Kashmir
(d) Kerala
Explanation: Option (c) is correct
The Gupkar Alliance, an amalgam of Jammu and Kashmir’s regional parties fighting for the restoration of pre-August 5, 2019 special constitutional position. These seven parties formed the alliance with an aim to restore Article 370 and thereby return J&K to its special status, which in 2019 ensuing much debate.
Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/other-states/ministry-of-home-affairs-jk-report-fabricated-says-gupkar-alliance/article36771663.ece

3. Civil Disobedience Movement was started by Mahatma Gandhi by breaking salt law. What were other methods other than breaking salt were adopted across India for Civil Disobedience?
1. The refusal to pay the Chowkidari tax
2. Breaking of forest laws
3. No-Tax Movement
Select the correct answer using the code given below:
(a) 1 and 2 only
(b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
Explanation: Option (d) is correct
Gandhi started Civil Disobedience On 6 April 1930, by picking up a handful of salt, Gandhiji inaugurated the Civil Disobedience Movement. Movement spread country wide in different form since salt making was not possible at all regions in every climatic condition.
Following were dominant forms movements across country:
•    This period also witnessed a new kind of no tax campaign – the refusal to pay the chowkidari tax. The chowkidars as village guards, supplemented the small contingent of rural police, were paid out of the tax levied specially on the villages. The popular antipathy for chowkidars had continued as they were often perceived as spies acting in favour of the Government and also as retainers for the local landlords. The movement against this tax, calling for the resignation of chowkidars, and of the influential members of chowkidari panchayats first started in Bihar in May 1930, in lieu of salt agitation due to the land-locked nature of the province.
• In Bengal, as salt manufacturing became difficult with the onset of the monsoon, the shift to anti-chowkidari and anti-Union Board agitation emerged as distinct options.
• No-tax movement in the shape of refusal of land revenue also surfaced in Kheda, Bardoli taluqa of Surat district, and Jambusar in Broach of Gujrat. It saw remarkable exodus of thousands of people, with family, cattle and household goods, from British India into the neighbouring princely states such as Baroda where they camped for months together in the open fields.
• Forest laws were defied and it assumed mass proportions in Maharashtra, Karnataka and the Central Provinces, ‘especially in areas with large tribal populations who had been the most seriously affected by the colonial Government’s restrictions on the use of the forest.
All statements are correct
Source: https://www.thehindu.com/opinion/lead/reading-gandhi-as-a-lesson-of-political-maturity/article36784243.ece
http://egyankosh.ac.in/bitstream/123456789/44322/3/Unit-15.pdf

4. Consider following statements:
1. Nilgiris Biosphere Reserve is first notified Biosphere Reserve in India
2. Mudumalai Tiger Reserve is part of the Nilgiris Biosphere Reserve
3. CA|TS is a set of criteria which allows tiger sites to check if their management will lead to successful tiger conservation
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 and 2 only
(b) 1 and 3 only
(c) 2 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
Explanation: Option (d) is correct
Biosphere Reserve (BR) is an international designation by United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) for representative parts of natural and cultural landscapes extending over large areas of terrestrial or coastal/marine ecosystems or a combination of both.
Biosphere Reserves tries to balance economic and social development and maintenance of associated cultural values along with the preservation of nature. Biosphere Reserves are thus special environments for both people and nature and are living examples of how human beings and nature can co-exist while respecting each others’ needs.
Mudumalai Tiger Reserve is located in the Nilgiris District of Tamil Nadu state spread over 321 sq.km. at the tri-junction of three states, viz, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu and it plays an unique role by forming part of the Nilgiris Biosphere Reserve, the first Biosphere Reserve in India, declared during 1986. It has a common boundary with Wyanad Wildlife Sanctuary (Kerala) on the West, Bandipur Tiger Reserve (Karnataka) on the North, and the Nilgiris North Division on the South and East and Gudalur Forest Division on the South West, together forming a large conservation landscape for flagship species such as Tiger and Asian Elephant.
Conservation Assured | Tiger Standards (CA|TS) has been agreed upon as accreditation tool by the global coalition of Tiger Range Countries (TRCs) and has been developed by tiger and protected area experts. Officially launched in 2013, it sets minimum standards for effective management of target species and encourages assessment of these standards in relevant conservation areas. CA|TS is a set of criteria which allows tiger sites to check if their management will lead to successful tiger conservation.
Statement 1 is correct:
Nilgiris Biosphere Reserve is first notified Biosphere Reserve in India
Statement 2 is correct:
Mudumalai Tiger Reserve is part of the Nilgiris Biosphere Reserve
Statement 3 is correct:
CA|TS is a set of criteria which allows tiger sites to check if their management will lead to successful tiger conservation.
Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/tamil-nadu/order-issued-to-hunt-mudumalais-tiger-t23-after-it-kills-one-more-person/article36785741.ece
http://www.wiienvis.nic.in/Database/BiosphereReserves_8225.aspx
https://www.mudumalaitigerreserve.com/about-us/
https://pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1740353

5. Consider following statements about Minimum Support Price (MSP):
1. Government fixes MSPs for crops on the basis of the recommendations of the Commission for Agricultural Costs & Prices (CACP)
2. Central government notifies MSPs which varies broadly across five geographical regions in country
3. MSP recommendation is based on 1.5 times the C2 costs in line with recommendation of National Commission for Farmers
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 2 and 3 only
Explanation: Option (a) is correct
Minimum Support Price (MSP) is a form of market intervention by the Government of India to insure agricultural producers against any sharp fall in farm prices. The minimum support prices are announced by the Government of India at the beginning of the sowing season for certain crops on the basis of the recommendations of the Commission for Agricultural Costs and Prices (CACP).
The MSP assures the farmers of a fixed price for their crops, well above their production costs. The Union Budget for 2018-19 had announced the pre-determined principle to keep MSP at levels of one and half times of the cost of production.
Following are the cost concepts that the Commission for Agricultural Costs and Prices (CACP) considers while recommending MSPs of 23 crops:
•    Cost A2- It covers all paid-out costs directly incurred by the farmer — in cash and kind — on seeds, fertilisers, pesticides, hired labour, leased-in land, fuel, irrigation, etc.
•    Cost A2 +FL - In agriculture, farmers also use a lot of family labour and if their cost is imputed and added to cost A2, that concept is called cost A2+FL.
•    Cost C2 - the Comprehensive cost (cost C2), it includes imputed costs of family labour, imputed rent of owned land and imputed interest on owned capital.
CACP recommendation is based on 1.5 times the A2+FL costs while the farmers have been demanding that MSP should be 1.5 times of C2, which was suggested by National Commission for Farmers.
Statement 1 is correct:
MSP is decided on the basis of the recommendations of the CACP
Statement 2 is incorrect:
MSP is determined for the country as a whole and not region or state-specific
Statement 3 is incorrect:
CACP recommendation is based on 1.5 times the A2+FL costs not 1.5 times of C2
Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/farm-unions-challenge-delay-in-paddy-procurement/article36781526.ece
 https://pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1657219
https://www.prsindia.org/theprsblog/explained-recent-changes-msps