1. Proper design and effective implementation of PM-KUSUM scheme can significantly contribute to:
1. Meeting India’s INDC target of 175GW renewable energy capacity by 2022
2. Reduce Greenhouse Gas emission
3. Stable income to rural landowners
4. Support the financial health of Discoms.
Select the correct answer using the code given below.
(a) 1 and 2 only
(b) 4 only
(c) 2 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2, 3 and 4
Explanation: Option (d) is correct
Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE) has launched the Pradhan Mantri Kisan Urja Suraksha evem Utthan ahabhiyan (PM KUSUM) Scheme for farmers for installation of solar pumps and grid connected solar and other renewable power plants in the country.
The Scheme consists of three components:
The Component-A includes installation of Decentralized Ground Mounted Grid Connected Renewable Power Plants
Component-B includes installation of standalone Solar Powered Agriculture Pumps
Component-C includes Solarisation of Grid-connected Agriculture Pumps.
Statement 1 is correct:
Installation of grid-connected solar power plants will indeed help India in meeting INDC target of 175GW renewable energy capacity by 2022
Statement 2 is correct:
KUSUM scheme advantages include decentralised local clean power for rural load centers replacing Coal fired thermal power plant and reduced dependence on diesel-powered pumps, major Greenhouse Gas emission sources.
Statement 3 is correct:
If farmers are able to sell surplus powers, they will be incentivised to save power and, in turn, it will mean the reasonable and efficient use of groundwater.
This may also provide water security to farmers through the provision of assured water sources through solar water pumps —both off-grid and grid-connected.
Statement 4 is correct:
This scheme will support the financial health of Discoms by reducing the burden of subsidy to the agriculture sector.
Source: https://www.thehindu.com/opinion/op-ed/revitalising-pm-kusum/article36702534.ece
https://pib.gov.in/PressReleaseIframePage.aspx?PRID=1565274
https://www.thehindubusinessline.com/opinion/columns/pm-kusum-will-shine-when-implemented-fully/article33309349.ece

2. Consider following statements about, the National Institute Ranking Framework (NIRF):
1. NIRF is the first-ever effort by the government to rank higher education institutions (HEIs) in the country
2. Participation in NIRF has been made compulsory for all government-run educational institutions
3. The NIRF formulates the ranking on the basis of six parameters
Which of the given statements above is/are correct?
(a) 1 and 2 only
(b) 1 and 3 only
(c) 2 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
Explanation: Option (a) is correct
The National Institute Ranking Framework (NIRF) is a methodology adopted by the Ministry of Education to rank higher educational institutions in India. The NIRF was launched in 2015.
This framework outlines a methodology to rank institutions across the country. The methodology draws from the overall recommendations broad understanding arrived at by a Core Committee set up by MHRD, to identify the broad parameters for ranking various universities and institutions. The parameters broadly cover “Teaching, Learning and Resources,” “Research and Professional Practices,” “Graduation Outcomes,” “Outreach and Inclusivity,” and “Perception”.
National Institute Ranking Framework or NIRF is the first-ever effort by the government to rank higher education institutions (HEIs) in the country. Before NIRF’s launch in 2016, HEIs were usually ranked by private entities, especially news magazines. While participation in the NIRF was voluntary in the initial years, it was made compulsory for all government-run educational institutions in 2018.
Statement 1 is correct:
NIRF is the first-ever effort by the government to rank higher education institutions (HEIs) in the country
Statement 2 is correct:
While participation in the NIRF was voluntary in the initial years, it was made compulsory for all government-run educational institutions in 2018.
Statement 3 is incorrect:
The NIRF formulates the ranking on the basis of five parameters namely “Teaching, Learning and Resources,” “Research and Professional Practices,” “Graduation Outcomes,” “Outreach and Inclusivity,” and “Perception”.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/opinion/op-ed/measuring-regional-diversity/article36702425.ece
https://www.nirfindia.org/About
https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/what-is-nirf-and-why-did-the-government-decide-to-rank-universities-7499133/

3. Which of the following are envisaged by the Right to Freedom in the Constitution of India?
1. Right to life and personal liberty
2. Right to education
3. Prohibition of employment of children in factories and mines
Select the correct answer using the code given below:
(a) 1 and 2 only
(b 1 and 3 only
(c) 2 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
Explanation: Option (a) is correct
Part III of the Indian Constitution guarantees six fundamental rights to all the citizens:
(a) Right to Equality
(b) Right to Freedom
(c) Right against Exploitation
(d) Right to Freedom of Religion
(e) Cultural and Educational Rights
(f) Right to Constitutional Remedies (Article 32)
Right to freedom includes Article 19 to Article 22 in The Constitution of India. Prohibition of employment of children in factories and mines (Article 24) guaranteed under right against Exploitation not under right to freedom.
 Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/an-institutions-right-to-govt-aid-is-not-a-fundamental-right-sc/article36702618.ece
 https://ncert.nic.in/ncerts/l/keps202.pdf
 M. LAXMIKANTH/ Fundamental Rights

4. Consider following statements about, the Akash Prime Missile:
1. It’s a surface to air missile.
2. Akash Prime is equipped with an indigenous active Radio Frequency(RF) seeker which increases its accuracy.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2
Explanation: Option (c) is correct
The development of the Akash SAM was started by the DRDO in the late 1980s as part of the Integrated Guided Missile Development Programme.
Akash is primarily a Short-Range Surface to Air Missile built to provide air defence cover to the vulnerable areas. The Akash weapon system can simultaneously engage multiple targets in group mode or autonomous mode. It has built-in Electronic Counter-Counter Measures (ECCM) features, which means that it has mechanisms on-board that can counter the electronic systems that deceive the detection systems.
The initial version of the Akash has an operational range of 27-30 km and a flight altitude of around 18 km. The Akash Prime has the same range as that of the earlier version but has a crucial new addition — that of an indigenous active Radio Frequency (RF) seeker for improved accuracy to hit aerial targets. Other improvements in the system ensures more reliable performance under low temperature environments at higher altitudes. These new additions have been made after receiving feedback from the IAF and the Army for deployment of the system to provide air defence cover for vital installations and sensitive areas in high-altitude regions.
Statement 1 is correct:
The Akash Prime Missile is a surface to air missile
Statement 2 is correct:
Akash Prime is equipped with an indigenous active Radio Frequency(RF) seeker which increases its accuracy.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/drdo-tests-akash-prime-missile/article36698998.ece
https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/explained-two-advanced-versions-of-akash-missile-7539643/

5. Consider following statements about, the Swachh Survekshan:
1. Swachh Survekshan of cities is conducted by the Swachh Bharat Mission -Rural
2. The survey intends to foster a spirit of healthy competition amongst towns and cities to improve their service delivery to citizens and move towards creating cleaner cities
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2
Explanation: Option (b) is correct
Swachh Survekshan is an annual survey of cleanliness, hygiene and sanitation in cities and towns across India. It was launched as part of the Swachh Bharat Abhiyan, which aimed to make India clean and free of open defecation by 2nd October 2019. The first survey was undertaken in 2016. It is the largest cleanliness survey in the world. In a bid to scale up the coverage of the ranking exercise and encourage towns and cities to actively implement mission initiatives in a timely and innovative manner, Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs (MoHUA) is now in the process of conducting the sixth edition of the survey to rank all cities under Swachh Bharat Mission-Urban (SBM-U) with Quality Council of India (QCI) as its implementation partner.
The objective of the survey is to encourage large scale citizen participation, ensure sustainability of initiatives taken towards garbage free and open defecation free cities, provide credible outcomes which would be validated by third party certification, institutionalize existing systems through online processes and create awareness amongst all sections of society about the importance of working together towards making towns and cities more habitable and sustainable. Additionally, the survey also intends to foster a spirit of healthy competition amongst towns and cities to improve their service delivery to citizens and move towards creating cleaner cities.
Statement 1 is incorrect:
Swachh Survekshan of cities is conducted by the Swachh Bharat Mission -Urban
Statement 2 is correct:
The survey intends to foster a spirit of healthy competition amongst towns and cities to improve their service delivery to citizens and move towards creating cleaner cities

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/hardeep-singh-puri-launches-swachh-survekshan-2022/article36694889.ece
https://swachhsurvekshan2021.org/