1. Consider following statements about, the National Mission on Cultural Mapping of India.
1. Mission will compile data of artists, art forms & geo location with inputs from state governments only.
2. This Mission is part of the ‘Ek Bharat Shreshtha Bharat’ umbrella
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2

Explanation: Option (b) is correct
The Ministry of Culture, Government of India launched the implementation of the ‘‘National Mission on Cultural Mapping of India in 2017. This Mission is part of the ‘Ek Bharat Shreshtha Bharat’ umbrella. Mission will compile data of artists, art forms & geo location with inputs from Central Ministries, State Governments & art/culture bodies.
The mission aims at converting the vast and widespread cultural canvas of India into an objective cultural map, designing a mechanism to fulfil the aspirations of the whole artist community of the nation and preserving the rich cultural heritage of this country in the form of a cultural repository of artists and art forms.
This Mission encompasses data mapping, demography building formalising the processes and bringing all the cultural activities under one web based umbrella for better results. The Mission also seeks to open a direct channel of communication of artists with the Government and peer to peer communication among artists for talent honing and handholding of each other.
With a vision that no cultural talent or heritage should remain unattended and if it is talent, it should be nurtured and if it is a heritage, it should be conserved and used as an icon to learn from the past, and also to propagate our cultural talent across all boundaries, the Ministry has planned to hold talent hunt competitions with various rounds from Block level to National level. The scheme is set to cover all the Blocks of the Country.
Statement 1 is incorrect:
Mission will compile data of artists, art forms & geo location with inputs from Central Ministries, State Governments & art/culture bodies.
Statement 2 is correct:
The National Mission on Cultural Mapping of India is part of the ‘Ek Bharat Shreshtha Bharat’ umbrella.
Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/ignca-to-start-cultural-mapping-in-75-villages-soon/article36651942.ece
https://pib.gov.in/newsite/printrelease.aspx?relid=165655
https://pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1592080

2. Which of the following factors are considered favorable for formation of tropical cyclones?
1. Warm Sea surface temperature
2. Low level positive vorticity
3. Large convective instability
Select the correct answer using the code given below:  (a) 1 and 2 only
(b) 1 and 3 only
(c) 2 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
Explanation: Option (d) is correct
A "Cyclonic Storm' or a "Cyclone" is an intense vortex or a whirl in the atmosphere with very strong winds circulating around it in anti-clockwise direction in the Northern Hemisphere and in clockwise direction in the Southern Hemisphere.
Tropical Cyclones (TCs) are warm core low pressure systems having a large vortex in the atmosphere, which is maintained by the release of latent heat by convective clouds that form over warm oceans. In the northern hemisphere, the winds in a cyclone blow anticlockwise in the lower troposphere and clockwise in the upper troposphere. However, in the southern hemisphere, the winds of the cyclone blow in the opposite direction i.e. clockwise in the lower levels and anticlockwise in the upper levels.
A full-grown cyclone is a violent whirl in the atmosphere with 150 to 1000 km diameter and 10 to 15 km height.
Following factors are considered favourable for cyclogenesis. These are:
i. Coriolis Parameter
ii. Low level positive vorticity
iii. Weak vertical wind shear of horizontal winds
iv. Warm Sea surface temperature (> 26.5° Celsius)
v. Large convective instability
vi. Large relative humidity at lower and middle troposphere

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/other-states/odisha-sounds-high-alert-over-cyclone-gulab/article36663018.ece

https://mausam.imd.gov.in/imd_latest/contents/pdf/cyclone_sop.pdf

3. Consider following statements about, the Election Commission of India (ECI):
1. Under the Representation of the People Act (RPA), 1951, The ECI can register or deregister any political party
2. The Chief Election Commissioner (CEC) along with other commissioners are protected from being removed except through impeachment
3. The ECI can cancel polls if there is an evidence of use of money power by candidates/ political parties
4. The Constitution has not specified the term of the members of the ECI
Which of the statements  given above is/are incorrect?
(a) 1 and 2 only
(b) 1, 2 and 3 only
(c) 2 and 4 only
(d) 1, 3 and 4 only
Explanation: Option (b) is correct
The Election Commission is a permanent and an independent body established by the Constitution of India directly to ensure free and fair elections in the country. Article 324 of the Constitution provides that the power of superintendence, direction and control of elections to parliament, state legislatures, the office of president of India and the office of vice-president of India, shall be vested in the election commission.
Statement 1 is incorrect:
Registration of political parties is governed by the provisions of section 29A of the RPA, 1951 but the ECI does not have power to deregister any political party
Statement 2 is incorrect:
Under article 324, only the Chief Election Commissioner (CEC) is protected from being removed except through impeachment
Statement 3 is incorrect:
Clause 58 A od the RPA, 1951 empowers the Election Commission to cancel polls only if there is an evidence of booth-capturing or use of muscle power to influence the outcome of elections not use of money power for winning elections.
Statement 4 is correct:
The Constitution has not specified the term of the members of the ECI.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/ec-awaits-law-ministry-nod-to-deregister-inactive-parties/article36666104.ece
M. LAXMIKANTH/ Election commission
https://www.thehindu.com/opinion/op-ed/a-crisis-of-credibility/article26867612.ece
https://www.thehindu.com/elections/lok-sabha-2019/is-the-ec-free-enough-to-play-fair/article26899391.ece
https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/Election-Commission-writes-to-Centre-seeks-power-to-postpone-revoke-polls/article14388354.ece

4. Consider following statements about, the mRNA Vaccines:
1. To trigger an immune response, mRNA vaccines put a weakened or inactivated germ into our bodies
2. Both Covaxin vaccine and Covishield vaccine are mRNA vaccine
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2
Explanation: Option (d) is correct
Messenger RNA is genetic material that tells our body how to make proteins or even just a piece of it—that triggers an immune response inside our bodies. The immune response produces antibodies, which in turn, protects us from getting infected when the real virus enters our bodies. These vaccines are manufactured in a completely synthetic manner.
mRNA vaccines are a new type of vaccine to protect against infectious diseases. mRNA teach our cells how to make a protein—or even just a piece of a protein—that triggers an immune response inside our bodies. That immune response, which produces antibodies, is what protects us from getting infected if the real virus enters our bodies.
A coronavirus vaccine based on mRNA, once injected into the body, will instruct the body’s cells to create copies of the spike protein. In turn, this is expected to prompt the immune cells to create antibodies to fight it. These antibodies will remain in the blood and fight the real virus if and when it infects the human body.
Other types of vaccine include the non-replicating viral vector category, examples of which are Covaxin vaccine and Covishield vaccine.
Statement 1 is incorrect:
mRNA vaccine uses lab generated mRNA sequence that codes for the spike protein. The mRNA are coded to tell the cells to recreate the spike protein of the virus against which immunity is required. Generated spike protein provides immunity against the infection.
Statement 2 is incorrect:
Covaxin vaccine and Covishield vaccine are not mRNA vaccine. They use non-replicating viral vector
To trigger immunity.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/sci-tech/health/mrna-vaccine-manufacturers-loath-to-share-know-how/article36670261.ece
https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/what-is-mrna-vaccine-7054131/

5. The term 'COVAX’, sometimes found in news, refers to
(a) Rare earth elements
(b) Bioremediation techniques to clean oil spills
(c) Global vaccine sharing platform
(d) Type of Nano-satellite manufactured in India
Explanation: Option (c) is correct
COVAX is global vaccine sharing platform. The COVAX program is led by the vaccine alliance GAVI, the World Health Organisation (WHO) and the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations (CEPI) in partnership with UNICEF, vaccine manufacturers and the World Bank, among others. The aim is to ensure equitable distribution of COVID-19 vaccines globally in what is being called the largest vaccine procurement and supply operation in history.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/explained-why-has-india-agreed-to-resume-vaccine-export/article36674446.ece
https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/explained-covax-scheme-to-distribute-covid-19-vaccines-around-the-world-7204738/