1.    Consider the following statements:

1.    The Communist Party of India was founded by M.N. Roy.

2.    Bihar Socialist Party was founded by Jaiprakash Narayan.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a)    1 only

(b)    2 only

(c)    Both 1 and 2

(d)    Neither 1 nor 2
Explanation
Statement 1 is correct: In October 1920, M.N. Roy founded the Communist Party of India at Tashkent.
Statement 2 is correct: In July 1931 Bihar Socialist Party was founded by Jaiprakash Narayan, Phulan Prasad Varma, etc.
In Sept. 1933-Punjab Socialist Party was founded.
In Oct. 1934, All India Congress Socialist Party was founded in Mumbai by N.Dev, Jaiprakash Narayan and Minoo Masani.
Source: https://www.thehindu.com/todays-paper/tp-national/tp-andhrapradesh/left-parties-to-lead-stir-against-true-up-charges/article36410292.ece

2.    With reference to the office of Chief Minister of a state, consider the following statements:

1.    The term of the Chief Minister of a state is five years.

2.    A person who is not a member of the state legislature can also be appointed as Chief Minister.

3.    The Chief Minister of a state is a member of the Governing Council of NITI Aayog.
Which of the statements given above are correct?
(a)    1 and 2 only

(b)    2 and 3 only

(c)    1 and 3 only

(d)    1,2 and 3
Explanation
Article 164 of the Constitution envisages that the Chief Minister shall be appointed by the governor.
Statement 2 is correct: A person who is not a member of the state legislature can be appointed as Chief Minister for six months, within which time, he should be elected to the state legislature, failing which he ceases to be the Chief Minister.
Statement 1 is incorrect: The term of the Chief Minister is not fixed and he holds office during the pleasure of the governor.
Statement 3 is correct: He is a member of the Inter-State Council and the Governing Council of NITI Aayog, both headed by the prime minister.
Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/bhupendra-patel-bjps-surprise-choice-for-gujarat-cm/article36421064.ece

3.    Consider the following statements regarding the Armed Forces (Special Powers) Act, 1958 (AFSPA):

1.    Only the Central Government can declare the whole or part of the State or Union Territory as a disturbed area.

2.    This act gives armed forces the power to even open fire after giving due warning if they feel a person is in contravention of the law.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a)    1 only

(b)    2 only

(c)    Both 1 and 2

(d)    Neither 1 nor 2
Explanation
Armed Forces (Special Powers) Act, 1958 (AFSPA) came into force in the context of increasing violence in the North-eastern States decades ago, which the State governments found difficult to control.
Statement 2 is correct: AFSPA gives armed forces the power to maintain public order in “disturbed areas”. They have the authority to prohibit a gathering of five or more persons in an area, can use force or even open fire after giving due warning if they feel a person is in contravention of the law.
Statement 1 is incorrect: The Central Government or the Governor of the State or administrator of the Union Territory can declare the whole or part of the State or Union Territory as a disturbed area.
Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/other-states/assam-govt-extends-afspa-for-another-six-months/article36409699.ece

4.    With reference to the modern history of India, consider the following statements:

1.    Mahatma Gandhi founded the Hindustani Prachar Sabha at Wardha.

2.    Mahatma Gandhi decided to withdraw the Civil Disobedience Movement after the Chauri-Chaura incident.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a)    1 only

(b)    2 only

(c)    Both 1 and 2

(d)    Neither 1 nor 2
Explanation
Statement 1 is correct: Mahatma Gandhi founded the Hindustani Prachar Sabha in 1942 at Wardha in Maharashtra. The aim of the organisation was to promote Hindustani, a link language between Hindi and Urdu.
At the Congress session at Nagpur in December 1920, the Non-Cooperation programme was adopted.
Statement 2 is incorrect: In February 1922, Mahatma Gandhi decided to withdraw the Non-Cooperation Movement after the Chauri-Chaura incident.
Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/cities/Delhi/need-to-spread-promote-mahatma-gandhis-work/article36409624.ece


5.    Consider the following statements with regard to the exclusive original jurisdiction of the Supreme Court of India.

1.    Any suit brought before the Supreme Court by a private citizen against the Centre or a state can be entertained under this.

2.    Ordinary disputes of Commercial nature between the centre and the states can be decided by the Supreme Court under the exclusive original jurisdiction.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a)    1 only

(b)    2 only

(c)    Both 1 and 2

(d)    Neither 1 nor 2
Explanation
With regard to the exclusive original jurisdiction of the Supreme Court, two points should be noted. One, the dispute must involve a question (whether of law or fact) on which the existence or extent of a legal right depends. Thus, the questions of political nature are excluded from it.
Statement 1 is incorrect: Two, any suit brought before the Supreme Court by a private citizen against the Centre or a state cannot be entertained under this.
Statement 2 is incorrect: The exclusive original jurisdiction of the Supreme Court does not extend to the ordinary dispute of Commercial nature between the Centre and the states.
Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/pegasus-row-supreme-court-to-hear-pleas-for-independent-probe/article36418438.ece