1.    Consider the following statements in connection with the Rajya Sabha:

1.    It traces its origin to the Government of India act, 1935.

2.    The Fourth Schedule of the Constitution deals with the allocation of seats in the Rajya Sabha to the states and union territories.

3.    The Constitution has fixed the term of office of members of the Rajya Sabha as six years.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a)    1 and 2 only

(b)    2 only

(c)    1 and 3 only

(d)    3 only
Explanation
Statement 1 is incorrect: Rajya Sabha is the second chamber of the Indian parliament, which traces its origin to the Montagu-Chelmsford Reforms, 1919.    
Statement 2 is correct: The Fourth Schedule of the Constitution deals with the allocation of seats in the Rajya Sabha to the states and union territories.
The Rajya Sabha (first constituted in 1952) is a continuing chamber, that is, it is a permanent body and not subject to dissolution.
Statement 3 is incorrect: The Constitution has not fixed the term of office of members of the Rajya Sabha and left it to the Parliament.
Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/other-states/election-for-one-rajya-sabha-seat-six-bypolls-on-october-4/article36376077.ece


2.    Recently, carbon dating done on organic material retrieved from archaeological excavations revealed some information related to the Thamirabarani civilisation. This civilisation was part of which of the following Indian states?

(a)    Andhra Pradesh

(b)    Karnataka

(c)    Tamil Nadu

(d)    Telangana
Explanation
Option c is correct: The Thamirabarani civilisation in Tamil Nadu is at least 3,200 years old, reveals carbon dating done on organic material retrieved from archeological excavations in Sivakalai, Thoothukudi district.
The shortest river in the state (Tamil Nadu), the Thamirabarani river starts in Pothigai hills of the Western Ghats in the Ambasamudram taluk, flows through Tirunelveli and Thoothukudi districts and empties at Korkai (Tirunelveli district) into the Gulf of Mannar (Bay of Bengal).
Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/tamil-nadu/carbon-dating-establishes-that-thamirabarani-civilization-is-3200-years-old-says-tn-cm-stalin/article36375882.ece


3.    Recently, the Ministry of Education released the India Rankings 2021. Under it, which of the following parameters are considered for assessment of institutions?

1.    Teaching, Learning and Resources

2.    Research and Professional Practice

3.    Graduation Outcomes

4.    Quantum of Government Funding

5.    Peer Perception
Select the correct answer using the code given below:
(a)    1,2,3 and 4 only

(b)    1,2,3 and 5 only

(c)    2,3,4 and 5 only

(d)    1,2,3,4 and 5

Explanation
Recently, the Ministry of Education released the India Rankings 2021 instituted by the National Institutional Ranking Framework (NIRF) (sixth edition).
Participation in NIRF was made compulsory for all government-run educational institutions in 2018.
Option b is correct: Under it, assessment is based on Five Parameters (Quantum of Government Funding is not considered for assessment):
Teaching, Learning and Resources (TLR)
Research and Professional Practice (RP)
Graduation Outcomes (GO)
Outreach and Inclusivity (OI)
Peer Perception
Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/iits-top-education-ministrys-rankings-for-2021/article36376187.ece


4.    Consider the following statements:

1.    Indian Railways is a statutory body headed by the Union Minister of Railways.

2.     The Railway Board is the apex body of the Indian Railways which reports to parliament through the Ministry of Railways.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a)    1 only

(b)    2 only

(c)    Both 1 and 2

(d)    Neither 1 nor 2

Explanation
Statement 1 is incorrect: The railways ministry operates the statutory body Indian Railways, an organisation that operates as a monopoly in rail transport and is headed by the Chairman and CEO of Railway Board.
Statement 2 is correct: The Railway Board, which is the apex body of the Indian Railways, reports to parliament through the Ministry of Railways.
The Railway Board comprises one Chairman, seven "members of the Railway Board", and a Financial Commissioner (who is the representative of the Ministry of Finance in the Railway Board).
Source: https://www.thehindu.com/todays-paper/tp-national/railway-board-order-announces-closure-of-green-fuel-wing/article36393293.ece


5.    With reference to the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR),consider the following statements:

1.    Its governing body is presided over by the Union Health Minister.

2.    It is funded by the Government of India through the Department of Biotechnology.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a)    1 only

(b)    2 only

(c)    Both 1 and 2

(d)    Neither 1 nor 2
Explanation
The Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR), the apex body in India for the formulation, coordination and promotion of biomedical research, is one of the oldest and largest medical research bodies in the world.
Statement 2 is incorrect: The ICMR is funded by the Government of India through the Department of Health Research, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare.
Statement 1 is correct: The governing body of the council is presided over by the Union Health Minister.
Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/2-doses-of-covid-19-vaccine-prevent-death-by-97-per-cent-icmr-chief/article36384005.ece