1.    With reference to Nipah virus (NiV), which of the following statements is/are correct?

1.    It is a zoonotic virus.

2.    It first broke out in Kerala in 1998.

3.    The disease spreads through ‘flying foxes’ of the genus Pteropus.
Select the correct answer using the code given below:
(a)    1 and 2 only

(b)    2 only

(c)    1 and 3 only

(d)    3 only

Explanation
Statement 1 is correct: Nipah virus (NiV) is a zoonotic virus. The organism which causes Nipah Virus encephalitis is an RNA or Ribonucleic acid virus of the family Paramyxoviridae, genus Henipavirus, and is closely related to Hendra virus.
Hendra virus (HeV) infection is a rare emerging zoonosis that causes severe and often fatal disease in both infected horses and humans.
Statement 2 is incorrect: It first broke out in Malaysia and Singapore in 1998 and 1999.
It first appeared in domestic pigs and has been found among several species of domestic animals including dogs, cats, goats, horses and sheep.
Statement 3 is correct: The disease spreads through fruit bats or ‘flying foxes,’ of the genus Pteropus, who are natural reservoir, hosts of the Nipah and Hendra viruses.
Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/kerala/nipah-resurfaces-in-kozhikode/article36298311.ece

2.    The Panjshir Valley, often seen in  the news, is located in:

(a)    Bangladesh

(b)    Afghanistan

(c)    Kashmir, India

(d)    Bhutan

Explanation
Option b is correct: The Panjshir Valley (literally Valley of the Five Lions) is a valley in north-central Afghanistan, near the Hindu Kush mountain range.
It is divided by the Panjshir River. The valley is home to more than 100,000 people, including Afghanistan's largest concentration of ethnic Tajiks.
The Valley has repeatedly played a decisive role in Afghanistan’s military history, as its geographical position almost completely closes it off from the rest of the country.
Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/international/taliban-opposition-battle-for-panjshir/article36296038.ece

3.    With reference to the Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Right (TRIPS), consider the following statements:

1.    It is applicable to all World Trade Organisation (WTO) members.

2.    This agreement is also described as a “Berne and Paris-plus” Agreement.
  Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a)    1 only

(b)    2 only

(c)    Both 1 and 2

(d)    Neither 1 nor 2
Explanation
Statement 1 is correct: TRIPS came into force in 1995, as part of the agreement that established the World Trade Organisation (WTO). It is applicable to all WTO members.
TRIPS establishes minimum standards for the availability, scope, and use of seven forms of intellectual property namely, trademarks, copyrights, geographical indications, patents, industrial designs, layout designs for integrated circuits, and undisclosed information or trade secrets.
It applies basic international trade principles regarding intellectual property to member states.
Statement 2 is correct: The TRIPS Agreement is also described as a “Berne and Paris-plus” Agreement.
Source: https://www.thehindu.com/business/Industry/india-urges-early-trips-waiver-ruling-on-covid-shots-at-wto/article36296399.ece


4.    Consider the following statements regarding the President of India:

1.    The electoral college responsible for President’s elections comprises elected members of the Lok Sabha, Rajya Sabha, Legislative Assemblies and Legislative Councils of the states.

2.    The President can be re-elected and there is no cap on his re-election.
  Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a)    1 only

(b)    2 only

(c)    Both 1 and 2

(d)    Neither 1 nor 2

Explanation
Statement 1 is incorrect: There is no direct election for the President of India. An electoral college elects him. The electoral college responsible for President’s elections comprises elected members of:
•    Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha
•    Legislative Assemblies of the states and Legislative Councils have no role
•    Legislative Assemblies of the Union Territories of Delhi and Puducherry
Statement 2 is correct: Once President is elected; he holds office for five years. He can also be re-elected and there is no cap on his re-election.
Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/president-kovind-lauds-teachers-for-responding-to-new-challenges/article36296910.ece

5.    Consider the following statements regarding the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN):

1.    Its Secretariat is located in Indonesia.

2.    It was established with the signing of the Bangkok Declaration by its founding fathers.

3.    India is one of its members.
Which of the statements given above are correct?
(a)    1 and 2 only

(b)    2 and 3 only

(c)    1 and 3 only

(d)    1,2 and 3

Explanation
The Association of Southeast Asian Nations is a regional organization which was established to promote political and social stability amid rising tensions among the Asia-Pacific’s post-colonial states.
8th August is observed as ASEAN Day.
Statement 1 is correct: ASEAN Secretariat is located in Indonesia, Jakarta.
Statement 2 is correct: ASEAN was established with the signing of the ASEAN Declaration (Bangkok Declaration-1967) by its founding fathers.
Statement 3 is incorrect: Its members are: Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Brunei, Vietnam, Laos, Myanmar and Cambodia. India is not its member.
Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/international/aseans-myanmar-envoy-in-talks-with-junta-over-visit-and-access-to-suu-kyi/article36294859.ece