1.    The concept of ‘creamy layer’ first found its mention in which of the following Supreme Court’s judgments?

(a)    M. Nagaraj Case (2006)

(b)    Jarnail Singh vs Lachhmi Narain Gupta case (2018)

(c)    Kihoto Hollohon Case (1993)

(d)    Indra Sawhney Judgement (1992)

Explanation
Option d is correct: The expression ‘means-test and creamy layer’ first found its mention in the Supreme Court’s landmark judgment in the Indra Sawhney vs Union of India case of 1992 (Mandal Commission case), that was delivered by a nine-judge Bench on November 16, 1992.
The creamy layer was then described as- “some members of a backward class who are socially, economically as well as educationally advanced as compared to the rest of the members of that community. They constitute the forward section of that particular backward class and eat up all the benefits of reservations meant for that class, without allowing benefits to reach the truly backward members”.
Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/basis-of-exclusion-of-creamy-layer-cant-be-merely-economic-supreme-court/article36083746.ece


2.    Consider the following statements regarding the Arctic Council:

1.    It was created with the signing of the Ottawa Declaration.

2.    Recently, India became the member of the Arctic Council.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a)    1 only

(b)    2 only

(c)    Both 1 and 2

(d)    Neither 1 nor 2

Explanation
Statement 1 is correct: The Arctic Council was created with the signing of the Ottawa Declaration in 1996 in Canada.
Statement 2 is incorrect: India got the observer status at the Kiruna Ministerial Meeting in 2013. As per the Ottawa declaration, the following 8 countries form the Arctic States: Canada, Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Russia, Sweden and the United States
Source: https://www.thehindu.com/opinion/op-ed/climate-change-a-catalyst-for-arctic-cooperation/article36088202.ece

3.    With reference to the Employees' Provident Fund Organisation (EPFO), consider the following statements:

1.    It manages social security agreements with other countries.

2.    It is under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Finance.

3.    It is a statutory body.
    Which of the statements given above are correct?
(a)    1 and 2 only

(b)    2 and 3 only

(c)    1 and 3 only

(d)    1,2 and 3

Explanation
Statement 3 is correct: Employees’ Provident Fund Organisation (EPFO) was established by an act of Parliament of India, to provide social security to workers working in India. It came into force by Employee Provident Fund and Miscellaneous Provision Act, 1952.
Statement 2 is incorrect: EPFO comes under the control of the Ministry of Labour and Employment.
Statement 1 is correct: It also manages social security agreements with other countries. International workers are covered under EPFO plans in countries where bilateral agreements have been signed.
Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/epfo-appeal-goes-to-larger-supreme-court-bench/article36079146.ece



4.    Consider the following statements regarding the Group of Seven (G7):

1.    Its headquarters are located in Paris.

2.    The UK, Canada, Italy and Japan are its members.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a)    1 only

(b)    2 only

(c)    Both 1 and 2

(d)    Neither 1 nor 2

Explanation
•    Group of Seven (G7) is an intergovernmental organisation that was formed in 1975.
•    Statement 2 is correct: The G7 countries are the UK, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan and the US.
•    All the G7 countries and India are a part of G20.
•    Statement 1 is incorrect: The G7 does not have a formal constitution or a fixed headquarters. The decisions taken by leaders during annual summits are non-binding.
Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/international/g7-agreed-taliban-must-allow-people-to-leave-after-august-31-says-johnson/article36086990.ece


5.    Consider the following statements regarding Gross Domestic product:

1.    Gross Domestic product is the total value of a country’s annual output of goods and services.

2.    Gross Value Added is the sum of a country’s Gross Domestic product and net of subsidies and taxes in the economy.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a)    1 only

(b)    2 only

(c)    Both 1 and 2

(d)    Neither 1 nor 2

Explanation
Statement 1 is correct: Gross Domestic product is a measure of economic activity in a country. It is the total value of a country’s annual output of goods and services. It gives the economic output from the consumers’ side.
Statement 2 is correct: Gross Value Added is the sum of a country’s GDP and net of subsidies and taxes in the economy.
GVA is defined as the value of output minus the value of intermediate consumption and is a measure of the contribution to growth made by an individual producer, industry or sector.
Source: https://www.thehindu.com/business/Economy/gdp-likely-grew-at-185-in-april-june-sbi-report/article36088978.ece