1. Which of the following best describes Cryogenic technology?
(a) It is the science that addresses the production and effects of very low temperatures.
(b) It is the science that addresses the production and effects of supercritical temperature.
(c) It is the science that addresses the production and effects of very low pressure.
(d) It is the science that addresses the production and effects of very high pressure.

Explanation: Option (a) is correct
Cryogenics is the science that addresses the production and effects of very low temperatures. The word originates from the Greek words 'kryos' meaning "frost" and 'genic'' meaning "to produce." Under such a definition it could be used to include all temperatures below the freezing point of water (0 C). However, Prof. Kamerlingh Onnes of the University of Leiden in the Netherlands first used the word in 1894 to describe the art and science of producing much lower temperatures. He used the word in reference to the liquefaction of permanent gases such as oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen, and helium. Oxygen had been liquefied at -183 C a few years earlier (in 1887), and a race was in progress to liquefy the remaining permanent gases at even lower temperatures. The techniques employed in producing such low temperatures were quite different from those used somewhat earlier in the production of artificial ice. In particular, efficient heat exchangers are required to reach very low temperatures. Over the years the term cryogenics has generally been used to refer to temperatures below approximately -150 C.

Source:
https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/gslv-f10-fails-to-launch-earth-observation-satellite-into-intended-orbit/article35868987.ece
https://trc.nist.gov/cryogenics/aboutCryogenics.html#:~:text=Cryogenics%20is%20the%20science%20that,of%20water%20(0%20C).

2. Which of the following agencies have statutory responsibility to keep inflation within pre-fixed limits?
(a) Finance Ministry
(b) NITI Aayog
(c) Reserve Bank of India
(d) Ministry of Agriculture

Explanation: Option (c) is correct
In May 2016, the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) Act, 1934 was amended to provide a Constitutional basis for the implementation of the flexible inflation targeting (FIT) framework.
The Act allows the Centre to set the inflation target in consultation with the RBI once every five years.
On that basis, India’s inflation target was set at 4 per cent with a 2 per cent extension in the upper bound and 2 per cent in the lower bound.

After the recent decision by the Central Government, India’s central bank, the RBI, will continue to target maintaining retail inflation within the band of 2% to 6%.

Source:
https://www.thehindu.com/business/Economy/indias-retail-inflation-eases-in-july-to-559/article35880275.ece#:~:text=13.6%25%20in%20June-,Retail%20inflation%20cooled%20slightly%20to%205.6%25%20in%20July%2C%20slipping%20below,of%202020%20begin%20to%20fade.
https://www.thehindubusinessline.com/opinion/inflation-targeting-has-been-a-success/article34208320.ece


3. Which of the following statements is/are correct about the National Green Tribunal?
1. It is a statutory body.
2.The Tribunal shall be bound by the procedure laid down under the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908.
3.The tribunal has to dispose of a complaint within six months of its filing.
Select the correct statement using the code given below:
(a) 1 and 2 only
(b) 2 only
(c) 2 and 3 only
(d) 1 and 3 only

Explanation:
Statement 1 is correct: The National Green Tribunal has been established on 18.10.2010 under the National Green Tribunal Act 2010 for effective and expeditious disposal of cases relating to environmental protection and conservation of forests and other natural resources including enforcement of any legal right relating to environment and giving relief and compensation for damages to persons and property and for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto.

Statement 2 is incorrect: The Tribunal shall not be bound by the procedure laid down under the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908, but shall be guided by principles of natural justice.

The Tribunal's dedicated jurisdiction in environmental matters shall provide speedy environmental justice and help reduce the burden of litigation in the higher courts.

Statement 3 is correct: The Tribunal is mandated to make and endeavour for disposal of applications or appeals finally within 6 months of filing of the same.

Source:
https://www.thehindu.com/news/cities/Delhi/ngt-plea-alleges-illegal-activities-on-forest-land/article35888013.ece
https://greentribunal.in/


4.  Which of the following statements is/are correct about GST compensation?
1. The Constitution (One Hundred and First Amendment) Act, 2016 provided for it.
2. It was introduced to compensate states facing revenue shortfalls arising from the transition to the new indirect taxes regime.
Select the correct answer using the code given below:
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2

Explanation:
Statement 1 is correct: The Constitution (One Hundred and First Amendment) Act, 2016, was the law which created the mechanism for levying a nationwide GST. Written into this law was a provision to compensate the States for loss of revenue arising out of implementation of the GST. The adoption of the GST was made possible by the States ceding almost all their powers to impose local-level indirect taxes and agreeing to let the prevailing multiplicity of imposts be subsumed under the GST.

Statement 2 is correct: While the States would receive the SGST (State GST) component of the GST, and a share of the IGST (Integrated GST), it was agreed that revenue shortfalls arising from the transition to the new indirect taxes regime would be made good from a pooled GST Compensation Fund for a period of five years that is set to end in 2022.

Source:
https://www.thehindu.com/business/didnt-seek-an-extra-paisa-from-anyone-for-covid-fight-fm/article35886878.ece
https://www.thehindu.com/business/Economy/what-is-the-gst-compensation-due-to-states/article32531827.ece

5. Which of the following statements is/are correct about QUAD?
1. It has members from Asia and the European Union.
2. It is a grouping of four democracies.
Select the correct answer using the code given below:
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2

Explanation: Option (b) is correct
The grouping of four democracies –India, Australia, US and Japan (none a member of EU)– known as the quadrilateral security dialogue or quad, was first mooted by Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe in 2007. However, the idea couldn’t move ahead with Australia pulling out of it, apparently due to Chinese pressure. The United States has been moving in all directions to make allies to contain China’s rise. The attempts to engage more with the east through Obama’s ‘Pivot to Asia’ and now ‘Indo-Pacific’ partnerships, all are strategic actions the US is taking. All four nations find a common ground of being the democratic nations and common interests of unhindered maritime trade and security.

Source:
https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/quad-officials-discuss-possible-leaders-summit-in-september/article35886558.ece
https://www.financialexpress.com/india-news/explained-what-is-quad-is-it-to-contain-chinas-rise/1201160/