1. Reservation for Economically weaker sections were provided for by which of the following Constitutional amendment acts?
(a) 101st Constitution amendment Act
(b) 100th Constitution amendment Act
(c) 103rd Constitutional amendment Act
(d) 90th Constitution amendment Act

Explanation: Option (c) is correct
Articles 15(6) and 16(6) have been inserted in the Constitution, vide the Constitution (One Hundred and Third Amendment) Act, 2019.  This enables the State to provide the benefits of reservation on preferential basis to the Economically Weaker Sections (EWSs) in civil posts and services in the Government of India and admission in Educational Institutions.  Accordingly, the provision for 10% reservation to the EWS was implemented by the Government in January 2019.  

Source:
https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/health-ministry-announces-27-for-obcs-10-for-ews-in-national-quota-medical-seats/article35603432.ece
https://pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1577969

2. Which of the following is/are correct about Siva Nataraja sculpture of Chola period?
1. It was made using a lost-wax process.
2. His cosmic dance would signify the cyclical creation and destruction of the universe.
Select the correct answer using the code given below:
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2

Explanation:
This poised sculpture of Nataraja belongs to the medieval era and originated in South India under the patronage of the Chola Dynasty in 12th century CE.

Statement 1 is correct: The Chola period is well known for its metal sculpture. It is known for the high standard of aesthetic and technical skill achieved by their craftsmen during this period. Metal sculptures both in South and North India were made using the lost-wax process. While South India produced solid sculptures, North India produced hollow ones. Most metal sculptures produced in the South would be made of an alloy of five metals; copper, silver, gold, tin, and lead.

Statement 2 is correct: Within the literature of Shaivite iconography, the dancing Shiva was depicted as either angry or calm. In either example, his cosmic dance would signify the cyclical creation and destruction of the universe.

Source:
https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/tamil-nadu/national-gallery-of-australia-returns-14-art-works-including-chola-idols/article35604254.ece#:~:text=Dancing%20child%2Dsaint%20Sambandar%20of,Asian%20art%20collection%20to%20India.
https://indianculture.gov.in/artefacts-museums/siva-nataraja

3. Which of the following statements best explain the Crowding out effect?
(a) Rising public sector spending reduces private sector spending.
(b) Rising public sector spending increases private sector spending.
(c) Rising private sector spending reduces private sector spending.
(d) Rising private sector spending increases private sector spending.

Explanation: Option (a) is correct
The crowding out effect is an economic theory arguing that rising public sector spending drives down or even eliminates private sector spending.

The sheer scale of this type of borrowing can lead to substantial rises in the real interest rate, which has the effect of absorbing the economy's lending capacity and of discouraging businesses from making capital investments.

Source:
https://www.investopedia.com/terms/c/crowdingouteffect.asp

4. Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action is related to:
(a) Reform agenda of United Nation
(b) Mission of NATO in Afghanistan
(c) Nuclear agreement with Iran
(d) None of the above

Explanation:Option (c) is correct
The Iran nuclear agreement, formally known as the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA), is a landmark accord reached between Iran and several world powers, including the United States, in July 2015. Under its terms, Iran agreed to dismantle much of its nuclear program and open its facilities to more extensive international inspections in exchange for billions of dollars’ worth of sanctions relief.

Source:
https://www.cfr.org/backgrounder/what-iran-nuclear-deal
https://www.thehindu.com/news/international/iran-nuclear-talks-cant-go-on-indefinitely-says-blinken/article35615039.ece

5. Which of the following statements is/are correct about Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojana (PMFBY)?
1. Premium to be paid by farmers is high for Kharif crops which are grown for export in comparison to that of Kharif crops for domestic consumption.
2. There is no upper limit on Government subsidy.

Select the correct statement using the code given below:
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2

Explanation:
Statement 1 is incorrect: There will be a uniform premium of only 2% to be paid by farmers for all Kharif crops and 1.5% for all Rabi crops. In case of annual commercial and horticultural crops, the premium to be paid by farmers will be only 5%. The premium rates to be paid by farmers are very low and balance premium will be paid by the Government to provide a fully insured amount to the farmers against crop loss on account of natural calamities.
Statement 2 is correct: There is no upper limit on Government subsidy. Even if the balance premium is 90%, it will be borne by the Government.
Source:
https://vikaspedia.in/agriculture/agri-insurance/pradhan-mantri-fasal-bima-yojana
https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/tamil-nadu/cm-tells-pm-to-remove-cap-on-centres-share-in-pmfby/article35617883.ece#:~:text=Chief%20Minister%20M.K.,welfare%20of%20the%20farming%20community.


Mains question
India must find the right balance so as to take advantage of a data driven ecosystem but with all reasonable restrictions. Discuss this in the light of recent controversy surrounding Pegasus.

Source:
https://digitalindia.gov.in/writereaddata/files/6.Data%20Protection%20in%20India.pdf