1. Which of the following areas are vulnerable to landslides?
1. Steep terrain
2. Deforested land
3. Land previously burned by wildfires

Select the correct statement using the code given below:
(a) 1 and 2 only
(b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3

Explanation: Option (d) is correct
Landslides can accompany heavy rains or follow droughts, earthquakes or volcanic eruptions. Areas most vulnerable to landslides include:
●    steep terrain, including areas at the bottom of canyons;
●    land previously burned by wildfires;
●    land that has been modified due to human activity, such as deforestation or construction;
●    channels along a stream or river;
●    any area were surface runoff is directed or land is heavily saturated.
Source:
https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/other-states/9-tourists-killed-as-boulders-hit-vehicle-in-himachal-landslide/article35528156.ece
2. Which of the following is/are correct about China-Pakistan Economic Corridor?
1. It is a component of Beijing’s Belt and Road Initiative.
2. The CPEC cuts through Pakistan-Occupied Kashmir (POK).
Select the correct statement using the code given below:
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2
Explanation:
Statement 1 is correct: The China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC), one of the most ambitious components of Beijing’s Belt and Road Initiative, was announced to great fanfare in 2015.
Statement 2 is correct: The CPEC cuts through Pakistan-Occupied Kashmir (POK) and the trans-Karakoram tract of Shaksgam, which was illegally ceded by Pakistan to China on March 2, 1963 under a provisional boundary settlement. The entire region of Gilgit-Baltistan (GB) through which the highway passes is located close to the Siachen Glacier as well as to Ladakh, the current flashpoint between India and China.
Source:
https://www.hindustantimes.com/opinion/cpec-china-s-designs-pakistan-s-ambivalence-and-india-s-opposition-101611066633406.html
https://www.thehindu.com/news/international/china-pakistan-outline-joint-action-to-align-afghanistan-strategies/article35519129.ece

3. Which of the following statements is/are correct about Forest Fire?
1. Forest fires are always harmful for the forest and environment.
2. Backburning is a process which involves setting a controlled fire in the path of the approaching wildfire.
Select the correct statement using the code given below:
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2

Explanation:
Statement 1 is incorrect: For most people, forest fire is synonymous with disaster. But there are some kinds of forest fires that actually benefit the environment.
A controlled burn is a wildfire that people set intentionally for a specific purpose. Well-thought out and well-managed controlled burns can be incredibly beneficial for forest management—in part because they can help stop an out-of-control wildfire.
Statement 2 is correct: The technique is called backburning, and it involves setting a controlled fire in the path of the approaching wildfire. All the flammable material is burnt up and extinguished. When the wildfire approaches, there’s no more fuel left for it to keep going, and it dies out.
Source:
https://www.worldwildlife.org/stories/forest-fires-the-good-and-the-bad
https://www.thehindu.com/news/international/californias-largest-fire-torches-homes-as-blazes-lash-west/article35519825.ece#:~:text=In%20California%2C%20Gov.%20Gavin%20Newsom,safety%20of%20persons%20and%20property%E2%80%9D.&text=On%20Saturday%2C%20fire%20crews%20from,%2C%20Gov.%20Greg%20Gianforte%20announced.
4. Consider the following statements about the Finance Commission:
1. It is a statutory body.
2. Its recommendations are also aimed towards improving the quality of public spending and promoting fiscal stability.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2
Explanation:
Statement 1 is incorrect: The Finance Commission is a Constitutionally mandated body that is at the centre of fiscal federalism. Set up under Article 280 of the Constitution, its core responsibility is to evaluate the state of finances of the Union and State Governments, recommend the sharing of taxes between them, lay down the principles determining the distribution of these taxes among States. Its working is characterised by extensive and intensive consultations with all levels of governments, thus strengthening the principle of cooperative federalism.
Statement 2 is correct: Its recommendations are also geared towards improving the quality of public spending and promoting fiscal stability. The first Finance Commission was set up in 1951 and there have been fifteen so far. Each of them has faced its own unique set of challenges.
Source:
https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/yv-reddy-warns-against-tendency-towards-centralisation-even-on-state-subjects/article35527357.ece
https://fincomindia.nic.in/
5. Which of the following are among the direct beneficiaries of Anganwadi services?
1. Children in the age group of 6-14 years
2. Pregnant women
3. Lactating mothers
Select the correct answer using the code given below:
(a) 1 and 2 only
(b) 1 and 3 only
(c) 2 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
Explanation:Option (c) is correct
The Integrated Child Development Service (ICDS) Scheme providing for supplementary nutrition, immunization and pre-school education to the children is a popular flagship programme of the government. Launched in 1975, it is one of the world’s largest programmes providing an integrated package of services for the holistic development of the child. ICDS is a centrally sponsored scheme implemented by state governments and union territories. The scheme is universal covering all the districts of the country.
The Scheme has been renamed as Anganwadi Services.

Beneficiaries:
●    Children in the age group of 0-6 years
●    Pregnant women and
●    Lactating mothers
Source:
https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/over-35-of-govt-schools-anganwadis-do-not-have-tap-water/article35528613.ece
https://vikaspedia.in/social-welfare/women-and-child-development/child-development-1/integrated-child-development-scheme


ins Question:
Keeping in mind the rising frequency of extreme events driven by climate change, suggest adaptation measures to ensure minimum damage to life and property.

https://www.thehindu.com/opinion/editorial/a-climate-risk/article35528979.ece