Parachute airdrop test for Gaganyaan

GS Paper – 3 (Space Technology)

ISRO's Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre has conducted the Integrated Main Parachute Airdrop Test (IMAT) of its crew module deceleration system for the much-awaited maiden Gaganyaan human spaceflight programme at the Babina Field Fire Range (BFFR) in Jhansi district of Uttar Pradesh.

More about IMAT

  1. The IMAT conducted on 18 November 2022 marks a significant milestone toward realising the nation's ambitious Gaganyaan project.
  2. The Gaganyaan deceleration system consists of three main parachutes, besides the smaller ACS, pilot, and drogue parachutes, to reduce the speed of the crew module to safe levels during its landing, the space agency said.
  3. Two of the three main chutes are sufficient to land the astronauts on earth, and the third is redundant, ISRO said adding that the IMAT test simulated the case when one main chute failed to open.
  4. The IMAT test is the first in a series of integrated parachute airdrop tests planned to simulate different failure conditions of the parachute system before it is deemed qualified to be used in the first human spaceflight mission.
  5. In this test, a five-tonne dummy mass, equivalent to the crew module mass, was taken to an altitude of 2.5 kilometres and dropped using the Indian Air Force's IL-76 aircraft. Two small pyro-based mortar-deployed pilot parachutes then pulled the main parachutes.
  6. The main parachute sizes were initially restricted to a smaller area to reduce the opening shock. After seven seconds, the pyro-based reefing line cutters cut the area restricting line, allowing the parachutes to inflate fully.
  7. The fully inflated main parachutes reduced the payload speed to a safe landing speed. The entire sequence lasted about 2-3 minutes as the scientists watched the different phases of the deployment sequence unfold with bated breath. There was loud cheer and applause as the payload mass landed softly on the ground and the gigantic parachutes collapsed.
  8. The design and development of the parachute-based deceleration system is a joint venture of ISRO and the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO).


The Data protection draft Bill refers to everyone as "she" or "her."

(GS Paper – 1 (Role of women in society)

The proposed Digital Personal Data Protection Bill, 2022, is the first to use the pronouns "she" and "her" to refer to all people instead of "he," "him," and "his."

  1. An effort to utilise the phrases she and her throughout the entire Bill rather than the pronouns he, his, and his in keeping with the "concept of women's empowerment, government said.
  2. The administration added that the Bill had been written in clear and straightforward language so that all individuals could grasp its provisions.
  3. This is the second attempt to create a Bill so that "any citizen is able to understand its terms," following the introduction of the draft Indian Telecommunication Act 2022 in September of this year. "Comprehensibility of law for citizens is a good goal," the explanatory note adds.

What is meant by Women Empowerment?

  • The process of empowering women is known as women's empowerment (or female empowerment).
  • It can be characterised in a variety of ways, such as accepting women's perspectives or making an attempt to do so, and elevating women's status through education, awareness, literacy, and training.


Reconsideration of SC ruling releasing Rajiv case defendants

(GS 2- Structure, organisation and functioning of the executive and the judiciary)

Can the Supreme Court reconsider its own judgments? In accordance with the guidelines of any Parliamentary Act, the Supreme Court is permitted to examine its own decision under Article 137. This authority must be used in accordance with the guidelines established by the court under Article 145. The Supreme Court will conduct the review on the following grounds:

  1. Introduction of new matters of importance related to evidence;
  2. Mistake or error on the face of the record;
  3. And If the case consists of any sufficient reason.

The Supreme Court's decision to release six prisoners serving life sentences for the 1991 death of former Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi was subject to a review request from the Centre. The Union argued that the court had not given it a sufficient opportunity to be heard before granting the prisoners' freedom.

  1. Despite being a "necessary and proper party" in the dispute, the Center claimed that the convicts had not named the Union as a respondent in the Supreme Court.
  2. The absence of the Union of India's assistance to the Supreme Court during adjudication of the matter has resulted in an admitted and glaring breach of the principles of natural justice and has, in fact, resulted in the miscarriage of justice, the Centre said. "This procedural lapse on the part of the petitioners resulted in the Union of India's non-participation in subsequent hearings of the case," the Center said.
  3. The government stated: "Granting remission to terrorists of foreign nation, who had been duly convicted in accordance with the law of land for the gruesome offence of assassinating the former Prime Minister, was a matter which had international ramifications" while pointing out that four of the released prisoners were Sri Lankan nationals.
  4. The Centre claimed that because the situation had significant effects on the nation's public order, peace, tranquilly, and criminal justice system, the Union of India's assistance was of the utmost importance.
  5. It argued that the order from November 11 had "grossly undermined" the "principles of natural justice, the purpose of which is to ensure justice or, to put it negatively, to prevent miscarriage of justice.