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As per the United Nations Population Fund (UNPFA), the global human population has surpassed 8 billion.

By 2022, Asia will have more than half of the world's population, with China and India having more than 1.4 billion people.

What Are the Population Growth Trends?

Overall Population Growth Rate Decrease:

  • The United Nations estimates UN it took 12 years for the global population to increase from 7 billion to 8 billion, and it will take around 15 years till 2037 to reach 9 billion.
  • This suggests that the world population's general growth rate is declining.
  • According to the UN Population Report, the global population is rising at its slowest rate since 1950 and will dip below 1% in 2020.
  • The world's population might reach 8.5 billion in 2030 and 9.7 billion in 2050.
  • It is expected to peak at roughly 10.4 billion people in the 2080s and remain there until 2100.

According to the United Nations, 60% of the world's population lives in an area where fertility rates are below replacement.

In 1990, 40% of people lived in areas where fertility rates were lower than replacement.

Poor Countries with High Fertility Rates:

  • Countries with the highest fertility rates also tend to have the lowest per capita income.
  • Over half of the predicted worldwide population increase between now and 2050 will be concentrated in eight countries: the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Egypt, Ethiopia, India, Nigeria, Pakistan, the Philippines, and the United Republic of Tanzania.
  • Sub-Saharan African countries are estimated to provide more than half of the projected growth until 2050.

International Migration:

  • With 281 million individuals residing outside their origin in 2020, international migration is becoming a major engine of growth in many nations.
  • In recent years, emigration has been high in all South Asian countries, including India, Pakistan, Nepal, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka.

What are the Population Statistics for India?

Managing Population Growth:

  • In accordance with the UN, India's fertility rate has reached 2.1 births per woman, or replacement-level fertility, and is continuing to fall.
  • Although India's population growth is slowing, it is still "increasing at 0.7% per year" and is on track to overtake China as the world's most populated country in 2023.
  • The UN estimates that China's population is no longer rising and may begin to decline as early as 2023.
  • According to World Population Prospects 2022, India's population is expected to be 1.412 billion in 2022, compared to China's 1.426 billion.
  • India's population is expected to peak at 1.7 billion in 2048 before dropping to 1.1 billion by the end of the century.

The World's Largest Adolescent Population:

  • Per the UNFPA projections, 68% of India's population will be between the ages of 15 and 64 in 2022, with persons aged 65 and over constituting 7% of the population.
  • More than 27% of the country's population is between the ages of 15 and 29.
  • India also has the world's highest teenage population, with 253 million people (10-19 years).
  • India now boasts the highest adolescent and young population in history.
  • India will continue to have one of the world's youngest populations until 2030, and it is presently experiencing a demographic window of opportunity, a "youth bulge," that will extend until 2025.

The Future Perspectives:

  • To reap the full benefits of a favourable age distribution, governments must engage in human capital development by assuring access to health care and excellent education at all ages and increasing chances for productive employment and decent labour.
  • India is through a demographic transition, with death rates decreasing and fertility rates declining during the next two to three decades. India can now concentrate on removing the necessity for contraception.
  • Women can choose whether or not to have children, and if so, when, how many, and at what intervals.
  • There is a need for skilling among young and adolescent populations since it is the only way to ensure they are more productive and have higher wages.

Source: IE