Context -

At the 27th Conference of Parties (COP27) in Sharm el-Sheikh, Egypt, India recently submitted its Long-Term Low Emission Development Strategy to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).

The Long-Term Low-Emission Development Strategy -

  • The LT-LEDS are a requirement of the 2015 Paris Agreement.
  • Countries must explain how they will transition their economy beyond fulfilling near-term Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) objectives and work towards the broader climate goal of decreasing emissions by 45% by 2030 and reaching net zero around 2050 under the Paris accord.
  • The Plan is founded on four essential concepts that serve as the foundation for India's long-term low-carbon development strategy.
  • Despite possessing 17% of the world's population, India has contributed little to global warming, with its historical contribution to total global GreenHouse Gas emissions being negligible.
  • India's development requires a considerable amount of energy.
  • According to national conditions, India is dedicated to and actively pursuing low-carbon development solutions.
  • India must strengthen its climate resilience.
  • The LiFE, Lifestyle for the Environment, concept also influences the LT-LEDS.
  • LiFE advocates for a global paradigm change away from thoughtless and harmful consumerism and toward attentive and purposeful consumption.

What are the LT-LEDS characteristics?

  • The policy will emphasize the prudent use of national resources while maintaining energy security.
  • Transitions away from fossil fuels will be seamless, sustainable, and all-inclusive.
  • The policy will encourage the expanded use of biofuels, particularly ethanol blending in gasoline, as well as the drive to enhance electric vehicle penetration and the use of green hydrogen fuel, all of which are projected to support the low-carbon growth of the transportation sector.
  • India aims to increase the usage of electric cars, increase ethanol blending to 20% by 2025, and make a significant transition to public transportation for passengers and freight.
  • Smart city initiatives, integrated city planning for mainstreaming adaptation and enhancing energy and resource efficiency, effective green building codes, and rapid developments in innovative solid and liquid waste management will drive low-base, future sustainable, and climate-resilient urban development.
  • The industrial sector will continue to operate under the auspices of 'Aatmanirbhar Bharat' and 'Make in India.'
  • India will also prioritize energy efficiency through the Perform, Achieve, and Trade (PAT) plan, the National Hydrogen Mission, increased electrification, improved material efficiency, recycling, and other methods to minimize emissions.

The Net Zero Target - 

  • Carbon neutrality does not imply that a country's emissions would be zero.
  • Instead, it is a situation in which a country's emissions are offset by removing and absorbing greenhouse gasses from the atmosphere.
  • Furthermore, emissions can be reduced by establishing more carbon sinks, such as forests.
  • However, removing gasses from the Environment necessitates cutting-edge technology such as carbon capture and storage.
  • Over 70 nations have pledged to achieve Net Zero emissions by the middle of the century or by 2050.
  • At the Conference of Parties-26 (COP) meeting, India pledged to reduce its emissions to net zero by 2070.

Source: TH