Context- 

On the occasion of Teacher's Day, the Prime Minister stated that the government will establish and upgrade 14,500 schools across India via the Pradhan Mantri Schools For Rising India (PM-SHRI) Yojana.

The Prime Minister noted that the PM-SHRI yojana will assist lakhs of students throughout India and will also help to execute the National Education Policy (NEP).

2020 Education Policy

  • In July 2020, the National Education Policy (NEP) 2020 was unveiled.
  • NEP 2020 will succeed the 1986 National Policy on Education.
  • It seeks to ensure universal access at all levels of education, from pre-primary to grade 12.
  • It ensures that all children aged 3-6 get high-quality early childhood care and education.
  • It established a new curriculum and pedagogical structure (5+3+3+4).
  • 5 years of fundamental training (for ages 3 to 8).
  • Three years of preparation (for ages 8 to 11 or in classes 3 to 5).
  • 3 years in the middle stage (for ages 11 to 14 or classes 6 to 8).
  • 4 years of secondary education (for ages 14 to 18 or classes 9 to 12).
  • There are no formal distinctions between the arts and sciences, curricular and extracurricular activities, or vocational and academic tracks.
  • To construct a National Foundational Literacy and Numeracy Mission.
  • Multilingualism and Indian languages are being promoted.
  • Board Exam Assessment Reform. PARAKH is establishing a new National Assessment Center (Performance Assessment, Review, and Analysis of Knowledge for Holistic Development).
  • Socially and economically disadvantaged groups are given special consideration.
  • A special gender inclusion fund, special education zones for disadvantaged areas and groups; a transparent teacher recruiting procedure, and merit-based performance evaluation.
  • Providing access to all resources through school complexes and clusters.
  • The establishment of the State School Standards Authority.
  • Increasing the importance of vocational education in schools and higher education institutions.
  • Increasing higher education's Gross Enrollment Ratio (GER) to 50%.
  • Education that is multidisciplinary and has various entry/exit points.
  • Establishment of an Academic Credit Bank.
  • Multidisciplinary education and research universities are being established.
  • The National Research Foundation is established.
  • Increased use of open and distance learning to boost GER.
  • 4-year integrated stage-specific, subject-specific teacher education Bachelor's Degree in Education.
  • All higher education institutions (HEIs) will be divided into three groups:
  • Research universities focus on both research and teaching.
  • Teaching universities are primarily concerned with education.
  • Degree-granting colleges were primarily concerned with undergraduate education.
  • Multiple systems with checks and balances will oppose and halt higher education commercialization.
  • All educational institutions will be held to the same audit and transparency criteria as non-profit organizations.
  • The Centre and the States will collaborate to expand public investment in education to 6% of GDP as soon as possible.
  • Strengthening the Central Advisory Board of Education to improve cooperation and place a greater emphasis on excellent education generally.

Indian Education System Concerns

  • India has attained universal primary school enrollment. This is a tremendous accomplishment, but bringing students to school is merely the first step in developing human capital.
  • Poor faculty quality, scarcity of trained faculty
  • Curriculum that is out of date, and a limited university-industry partnership.
  • Indian-origin Scientists have received the Nobel Prize, yet post-independence research in India has not resulted in science fiction novels. If Indians studying and working overseas can have a significant influence, then the fault must be with our educational and research systems.
  • The governance system is broken. There are a few incentives for being a good teacher and a few penalties for being a bad one. More effective and accountable governance systems are required.
  • The hunger of private colleges to make as much money as possible from each student puts tremendous pressure on students, resulting in mental disintegration.
  • Girls drop out of school at a higher rate than boys. While guys go to work, girls generally stay at home and help with household chores. Gender role socialization is a significant element.
  • Pandemics and the digital divide are causing learning loss.

The government has taken the following steps:

  • Article 21A of the 86th Constitutional Amendment establishes the fundamental right to free and compulsory education, which includes a common education system in which "wealthy and poor are taught under one roof."
  • The Declaration of Educational Institutions as Eminent Institutions to deliver world-class education to Indian students throughout the country
  • The establishment of a higher education financing agency to support high-quality infrastructure at prestigious educational institutions.
  • For ranking our higher education institutions, we use the National Institution Ranking Framework.
  • GIAN Initiative invites prominent academics, entrepreneurs, scientists, and professionals from world-class universities to lecture in India's higher education institutions.
  • AI may be utilised to provide personalised instructions based on the needs of the students.
  • The government must seek to improve digital infrastructure and provide pupils with mobile phones or laptop computers.
  • SWAYAM is an online course portal.
  • Prabha SWAYAM We provide HD educational channels through DTH 24 hours a day, seven days a week.
  • Sodhganga would create a national repository of Indian institutions as well as digital study materials for higher education.
  • The Samagra Shiksha Scheme aims to provide inclusive and equitable quality education at all levels of schooling.
  • The government encourages open online courses through Swayam Platforms so that students may receive excellent lectures online.

Source: PIB