News Excerpt
Recently, Crime of India 2019 report has released by Nation Crime Record Bureau.

•    NCRB was set-up in 1986 to function as a repository of information on crime and criminals so as to assist the investigators in linking crime to the perpetrators based on the recommendations of the Tandon Committee, National Police Commission (1977-1981) and the MHA’s Task force (1985).
•    Subsequently, NCRB was entrusted with the responsibility for monitoring, coordinating and implementing the Crime and Criminal Tracking Network & Systems (CCTNS) project in the year 2009. The project has connected 15000+ police
stations and 6000 higher offices of police in the country.

About the Report
●    India recorded a 1.6% rise in the number of cognizable crimes between 2018 and 2019.
●    Nearly 5.2 million cognizable crimes were reported across India in 2019. These cognizable crimes include those covered under the Indian Penal Code (IPC) as well as those covered under various Special and Local Laws (SLL). While the first category saw a rise of about 3%, the number of cases under the second decreased by 0.6%.
●    Data from previous annual Crime in India reports compiled by the Centre for Monitoring Indian Economy shows that the number of cases registered under both these categories increased by nearly 13% in the last six years.
●    Nearly every third case registered under the IPC in 2019, or about 1.1 million, was regarding offences affecting the human body such as murder, rape, causing death, kidnapping, etc. Offences against property, such as theft and criminal breach of trust, comprised about 26% or 0.9 million cases.
●    Between 2018 and 2019, the number of IPC cases under each category of offences increased, with the sole exception of cases registered in offences against public tranquility, which includes crimes such as unlawful assembly and rioting. Offences against property increased by 6.5% -- it includes theft which increased by 8% and was the single most committed crime in India comprising 21% of all IPC crimes.

●    The crimes against women, children, senior citizens, and people belonging to the scheduled caste and scheduled tribe communities increased between 2018 and 2019 at varying degrees. Crimes against women increased by 7.3%.
●    Cruelty by husband or his relatives was the single most committed crime against women in 2019, comprising 31% of all crimes against women.
●    Rape comprised about 8% of crimes against women.
●    Among crimes against children, kidnapping and abduction, and sexual offences were the two most committed crimes.
●    Simple hurt, theft, forgery, cheating and fraud comprised about half of all crimes among senior citizens.
●    UP reported the highest number of crimes against women (59,853), accounting for 14.7 per cent of such cases across the country. It was followed by Rajasthan (41,550 cases; 10.2 per cent) and Maharashtra (37,144 cases; 9.2 per cent). Assam reported the highest rate of crime against women at 177.8 (per lakh population), followed by Rajasthan (110.4) and Haryana (108.5).
●    Rajasthan reported the highest number of rapes with 5,997 cases, followed by UP (3,065) and Madhya Pradesh (2,485). In terms of rate of rape cases, Rajasthan was the highest at 15.9 (per lakh population), followed by Kerala (11.1) and Haryana (10.9).
●    UP also had the highest number of crimes against girl children under the POCSO Act with 7,444 cases, followed by Maharashtra (6,402) and MP (6,053). The highest rate of these crimes were in Sikkim (27.1 per lakh population), MP (15.1), and Haryana (14.6).
●    UP had the highest number of dowry cases (2,410), at a rate of 2.2 (per lakh population), followed by Bihar (1,120). According to the report, 150 acid attacks were reported in 2019, of which 42 took place in UP and 36 in West Bengal.
●    UP reported the most cases against Scheduled Castes – 11,829 cases, accounting for 25.8 per cent of the cases across the country. It was followed by Rajasthan (6,794 cases; 14.8 per cent) and Bihar (6,544; 14.2 per cent). However, the rate of such cases was highest in Rajasthan at 55.6 (per lakh population), followed by MP (46.7) and Bihar (39.5).

Suicides report
•    The NCRB also released the Accidental Death and Suicides in India 2018 report, which said that 10,349 people working in the farm sector ended their lives in 2018, accounting for 7.7 % of the total number of suicides in the country.
•    There were 5,763 farmers/cultivators and 4,586 agricultural labourers among those who ended their lives. The total number of people who committed suicide in 2018 was 1,34,516, an increase of 3.6% from 2017 when 1,29,887 cases were reported.
•    The highest number of suicide victims were daily wagers — 26,589, comprising 22.4% of such deaths.
•    The majority of the suicides were reported in Maharashtra (17,972) followed by Tamil Nadu (13,896), West Bengal (13,255), Madhya Pradesh (11,775) and
•    Karnataka (11,561)
Many States and Union Territories have reported nil data on suicides by farmers, cultivators and farm laborers. “West Bengal, Bihar, Odisha, Uttarakhand, Meghalaya, Goa, Chandigarh, Daman & Diu, Delhi, Lakshadweep and Puducherry reported zero suicides by farmers/cultivators as well as agricultural laborers.

Crime Against SCs and STs
    Crime against Scheduled Castes (SCs) and Scheduled Tribes (STs) saw an increase of over 7% and 26% respectively in year 2019 compared to 2018.
    A total of 45,935 cases were registered for committing crime against SCs, showing an increase of 7.3% over 2018, when 42,793 such cases were recorded.
    In the number of cases of rape of women belonging to SCs, Rajasthan topped the list with 554 cases, followed by Uttar Pradesh at 537 and Madhya Pradesh at 510 cases.
    A total of 8,257 cases were registered for committing crime against STs, an increase of 26.5% over 2018, when 6,528 such cases were registered.
    Madhya Pradesh recorded the highest number of cases against STs as it recorded 1,922 cases, followed by Rajasthan, which recorded 1,797 cases and Odisha-576 cases.
    The highest number of incidents of rape of tribal women- 358 was registered in Madhya Pradesh, followed by 180 incidents in Chattisgarh and 114 in Maharashtra.
    Simple hurt -1,675 cases formed the highest number of cases of crimes and atrocities against STs, accounting for 20.3% of the total crimes committed in 2019.
    It was followed by 1,110 cases of rape of tribal women, which accounted for 13.4% and 880 cases of assault on women with the intent to outrage the modesty that accounted for 10.7% of the total cases.

CHRI statement
    According to the Commonwealth Human Rights Initiative (CHRI), a police reforms advocacy group, few cases were being registered for specific discriminatory action against SCs and STs.
    Crimes against SCs and STs include the following categories- atrocities committed by non-SC/ST members under the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities Act), 1989 (hereafter POA Act), the Indian Penal Code and the Protection of Civil Rights Act, 1955.
    The low percentage of cases registered just under the POA Act alone indicates that very few cases alleging specific discriminatory actions on the basis of caste and tribal identity that are defined as atrocities under Section 3 of the Act are being registered on their own. Such actions are registered mainly when accompanied by any of the IPC offences. There is no data on total complaints received on crimes against the Scheduled Castes.

Crime and Criminal Tracking Network & Systems (CCTNS)
    CCTNS is a Mission Mode Project under the National e-Governance Plan (NeGP) of Govt. of India.
    CCTNS aims at creating a comprehensive and integrated system for enhancing the efficiency and effectiveness of policing through adopting of principle of e-Governance and creation of a nationwide networking infrastructure for evolution of IT-enabled-state-of-the-art tracking system around 'Investigation of crime and detection of criminals'.

Tandon Committee, National Police Commission, Crime and Criminal Tracking Network& Systems (CCTNS), Police Reforms, Prakash Singh Case and related guidelines by the Supreme Court, etc.

The Commonwealth Human Rights Initiative (CHRI)
    The Commonwealth Human Rights Initiative (CHRI) is an independent, non-profit, non-partisan, international non-governmental organisation working in the area of human rights. In 1987, several Commonwealth professional associations founded CHRI, since there was little focus on human rights within the association of 53 nations although the Commonwealth provided member countries the basis of shared common legal system.
    CHRI promotes adherence to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the Commonwealth Harare Principles and other internationally recognised human rights instruments, including domestic legislation supporting human rights in Commonwealth countries. It is headquartered in New Delhi, India, with offices in London, UK and Accra, Ghana.