News Excerpt
Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) released National Cancer Registry Programme Report 2020.

Pre-Connect
•    Cancer is a genetic disease, caused by changes to genes that control the way our cells function, especially how they grow and divide.
•    Genetic changes that cause the cancer can be inherited from our parents.
•    Genetic changes can also arise during a person’s lifetime as a result of errors that occur as cells divide or because of damage to DNA caused by certain environmental exposures.
•    Cancer-causing environmental exposures include substances, such as chemicals in tobacco smoke, and radiation, such as ultraviolet rays from the sun.
•    Report is released by ICMR and National Centre for Disease Informatics and Research (NCDIR), Bengaluru.

Highlights
    Report estimates that there will be 13.9 lakh cases of cancer in India by 2020 and likely to rise to 15.7 lakh by 2025.
    Estimates are based on data retrieved from 28 Population-Based Cancer Registries (PBCRs) and 58 Hospital-Based Cancer Registries (HBCRs) across India, from 2012 to 2016.
    PBCRs measure the incidence rates of cancer for a defined population, while HBCRs provide data on the clinical presentation, diagnosis and care of cancer.
    ICMR set up the National Cancer Registry Programme (NCRP) in 1982.
    NCRP is overseen by ICMR National Centre for Disease Informatics & Research (NCDIR), Bengaluru.
    As per the report, tobacco-related cancers will account for 27.1% of India’s cancer burden in 2020, followed by gastrointestinal cancer (19.7%) and cervix uteri cancer (5.4%).
    Cancer incidence rate for male population ranges from 269.4 in Aizawl district (highest in India) to 39.5 in Osmanabad and Beed district per 1,00,000 population.
    Cancer incidence rate for women populationranges from 219.8 (Papumpare district) to 49.4 (Osmanabad & Beed district) per 100,000 population.
    A significant increase in the incidence rates of breast cancers in women. Lung, head and neck cancer in both men and women was observed in most of the registries.
    Cancers of lung were diagnosed at a stage of spread to distant sites, while cancers of head and neck, stomach, breast and cervix were in higher proportions with loco-regional spread.
    Report finds that highest incidence of cancer was observed in the North-eastern region — one out of four persons between 0 and 74 years in Arunachal Pradesh’s Papumpare district had the possibility of developing cancer in their lifetime.
    Lung, mouth, stomach and oesophagus cancer were the most common among men, whilebreast and cervix uteri cancer were the most common among women.
    The incidence of breast cancer is on the rise while cervical cancer is on the decline.
    Highest burden of breast cancer was observed in metropolitan cities such as Hyderabad, Chennai, Bengaluru and Delhi.
    World Cancer Day falls on 4th February every year, is the global uniting initiative led by the Union for International Cancer Control (UICC).

Conclusion
Cancer treatment has seen significant improvement over the years and now we have targeted therapies. Precision medicine available that has led to improved treatment.