News Excerpt
India got its first indigenous pneumonia vaccine along with an apex drug regulator granting market approval for Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Conjugate Vaccine developed by Serum Institute of India.

Pre-Connect
•    The Serum Institute, first obtained the DGCI approval to conduct Phase I, Phase II and Phase III clinical trials of Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Conjugate Vaccine in India. It has also conducted clinical trials in Gambia.
•    According to information on the clinical trials registry, the first phase of the trial was conducted in 2013 in 34 young Indian adults, while the second phase in 114 toddlers of 12-15 months. The third phase of trials was conducted on 448 infants between the age of six to eight weeks old, and this was completed in October last year, as per the registry.
•    Around 2,250 infants were part of the trial in the Gambia and the vaccine has been pre-qualified by WHOin December 2019.

Vaccine and Pneumococcal
    Vaccine is used to immunize against infectious diseases and pneumonia caused by Streptococcus pneumonia in infants and is administered in an intramuscular injection.
    People over 65 years of age, who smoke cigarettes, and others who suffer from health conditions like chronic lung disease or diabetes are more affected by disease and need to be vaccinated.
    Pneumonia also affects people with sicknesses that can lower the body’s resistance to infection, or those with weakened immune systems.
    Pneumococcal (pneumonia-causing) bacteria can spread from person to person via direct contact with respiratory secretions like saliva and mucus, according to the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
    The bacteria can be carried in a person's nose and throat and spread to a healthy person without any symptoms of sickness presented in carriers.

Highlights
    Pneumonia is an infection in one or both lungs. Bacteria, viruses, and fungi cause it.
    The infection causes inflammation in the air sacs in your lungs, which are called alveoli.
    The alveoli fill with fluid or pus, making it difficult to breathe.
    According to WHO, pneumonia is the leading cause of death in infants worldwide.

Is pneumonia contagious?
1.    The germs that cause pneumonia are contagious. This means they can spread from one person to another.
2.    Both viral and bacterial pneumonia can spread to others through inhalation of airborne droplets from a sneeze or cough.
3.    One can also get these types of pneumonia by coming into contact with surfaces or objects that are contaminated with pneumonia-causing bacteria or viruses.
4.    One can contract fungal pneumonia from the environment. However, it doesn’t spread from person to person.

Symptoms of pneumonia:Pneumonia symptoms can be mild to life-threatening. They can include:
o    coughing that may produce phlegm (mucus)
o    fever
o    sweating or chills
o    shortness of breath that happens while doing normal activities or even while resting
o    chest pain that’s worse when you breathe or cough
o    feelings of tiredness or fatigue
o    loss of appetite
o    nausea or vomiting
o    headaches
For More Information read KSG current connect June 2020