Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI)
Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) released by United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and the Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative (OPHI), shows that 65 out of 75 countries studied significantly reduced their multidimensional poverty levels between 2000 and 2019.
• The MPI identifies multiple deprivations at household and individual level in health, education and standard of living, comprising 10 indicators.
• It uses micro data from household surveys, and—unlike the Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index—all indicators needed to construct the measure must come from the same survey.
• Each person in a given household is classified as poor or non-poor depending on the weighted number of deprivations his or her household, and thus, he or she experiences.
• These data are then aggregated into the national measure of poverty.
• MPI reflects both the incidence of multidimensional deprivation (a headcount of those in multidimensional poverty) and its intensity (the average deprivation score experienced by poor people).
• It can be used to create a comprehensive picture of people living in poverty, and permits comparisons across countries, regions and the world and within countries by ethnic group, urban or rural location, as well as other key household and community characteristics.
• The MPI offers a valuable complement to income-based poverty measures.
• The 2020 MPI covers 107 countries—28 low income, 76 middle income and 3 high income —and 5.9 billion people in developing regions.
In 107 developing countries, 1.3 billion people (22 %) live in multidimensional poverty.
Around 803 million multi-dimensionally poor people live in a household where at least one is undernourished, 476 million have an out-of-school child at home, 1.2 billion lack access to clean cooking fuel, 687 million lack electricity and 1.03 billion have substandard housing materials.
Before the pandemic 47 countries were on track to halve poverty between 2015 and 2030, if observed trends continued. But 18 countries, including some of the poorest, were off track.
The countries with the fastest reduction in MPI value in absolute terms were Sierra Leone, Mauritania and Liberia, followed by Timor-Leste, Guinea and Rwanda. North Macedonia had the fastest relative poverty reduction, followed by China, Armenia, Kazakhstan, Indonesia, Turkmenistan and Mongolia. Each of these countries cut its original MPI value by at least 12 percent a year.
Of the 65 countries that reduced their MPI value, 50 also reduced the number of people living in poverty.
The largest reduction was in India, where around 273 million people moved out of multidimensional poverty over 10 years.
The report says that 10 countries account for 60 per cent of unvaccinated children, and 40 per centunvaccinated children for Diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP3) resides in Nigeria, India, Pakistan and Indonesia.
Poverty is undesirable in the present world as it is against humanity. It’s scaling down is sine qua non. To address the issue of poverty, it is suggested that a massive awareness campaign should be carried out for population reduction.
PEPPER IT WITH
United Nations Development Programme, Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative