News Excerpt
India has joined international and multi-stakeholder initiative of Global Partnership for Artificial Intelligence (GPAI) as its founder member.

What is Artificial intelligence (AI)?
•    John McCarthy coined the term in 1956.
•    It is wide-ranging branch of computer science concerned with building smart machines capable of performing tasks that typically require human intelligence.
•    AI is an interdisciplinary science with multiple approaches, but advancements in machine learning and deep learning are creating a paradigm shift in virtually every sector of the tech industry.
•    From SIRI to self-driving cars, AI is progressing rapidly. While science fiction often portrays AI as robots with human-like characteristics, AI can encompass anything from Google’s search algorithms to IBM’s Watson to autonomous weapons.

Advantages of Artificial Intelligence
    Machine take decision based on previous data records. With algorithms, the chances of errors are reduced. This is an achievement, as solving complex problems require difficult calculation that can be done without any error.
    Business organizations use digital assistants to interact with their users, this helps them to save an ample amount of time.
    Artificial Intelligence and the science of robotics is used in mining and other fuel exploration processes. These complex machines help to explore the ocean floor and overcome human limitations. Due to the programming of the robots, they can perform a more laborious task with extra hard work and with greater responsibility. Moreover, they do not wear out easily.
    With humans, emotions come along but in case of AI-driven robots and machine they don’t distraction at all. They don’t have an emotional side, and that makes robots think logically. Emotions are not associated with machines and therefore the mood doesn’t hamper the efficiency.Thus, they are always productive.
    Repetitive jobs are monotonous in nature and can be carried out with the help of machine intelligence. Machines think faster than humans and can perform various functions at the same time. It can be employed to carry out dangerous tasks and its parameters are adjusted. This is not possible with humans as their speed and time can’t be calculated on the basis of parameters.
    It has a wide scope application in medical science. Doctors assess patients and their health risks with the help of artificial machine intelligence. The applications help to educate the machine about the side effects of various medicines. Nowadays, medical professionals are trained with artificial surgery simulators. It uses application which helps in detecting and monitoring neurological disorders and stimulate the brain functions.
    This also helps in the radiosurgery. Radiosurgery is used in operating tumors and help in the operation without damaging the surrounding tissues.
    AI are programmed for long hours and can continuously perform without getting bored or distracted. This is a major benefit over humans, who need a rest from time to time to be efficient.

Disadvantages of Artificial Intelligence
    AI requires huge costs as it is a complex machine. Apart from the installation cost, its repair and maintenance also require huge costs. The software programs need frequent upgradation and cater to the needs of the changing environment.
    No matter how smart a machine becomes, it can never replicate a human. Machines are rational but, very inhuman as they don’t possess emotions and moral values. They don’t know what is ethical and what’s legal and because of this, don’t have their own judgment making skills. If they encounter a situation that is unfamiliar to them then they perform incorrectly or else break down in such situations.
    Artificial intelligence cannot be improved with experience, they can perform the same function again if no different command is given to them. With time, it can lead to wear and tear. It stores a lot of data but the way it can be accessed and used is very different from human intelligence.
    In AI, there is no sense of belonging or togetherness or a human touch. They fail to distinguish between a hardworking individual and an inefficient individual.
    Machines can’t be creative. They can only do what they are being taught or commanded. Though they help in designing and creating, they can’t match the power of a human brain.
    With capital intensive technologies, human-intensive requirements have decreased in some industries. If in the future, human beings don’t add to their skills, then these AI machine can definitely replace the human.

    Recognising the need for cooperation at international level to tap the full potential of AI and ensure that it is of benefit to all citizens while respecting democratic values and the primacy of human beings, the founding members of the Global Partnership on Artificial Intelligence (GPAI) mean to encourage and guide responsible development of AI based on human rights, inclusion and diversity while fostering innovation and economic growth.
    The Global Partnership on AI (GPAI) is an international initiative created by France and Canada along with Australia, the European Union, Germany, India, Italy, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand, the Republic of Korea, Singapore, Slovenia, the United Kingdom and the United States of America.
    This multi-stakeholder international partnership will promote responsible and human centric development and use of AI.
    This is also a first initiative of its type for evolving better understanding of the challenges and opportunities around AI using the experience and diversity of participating countries.
    In order to achieve this goal, the initiative will look to bridge the gap between theory and practice on AI by supporting cutting-edge research and applied activities on AI-related priorities.
    GPAI will bring together experts from the industry, civil society, governments, academia to collaborate, and to promote responsible evolution of AI, and will also evolve methodologies to show how it can be leveraged to better respond to the present global crisis around Covid-19.
    By joining GPAI as a founding member, India will actively participate in the global development of Artificial Intelligence, leveraging upon its experience around use of digital technologies for inclusive growth.
    This body is supported by Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), Paris.

    India has been very active in boosting National AI Strategy by putting in action committees and National AI Portal to bring the impact of the technology across various economic sectors like agriculture, healthcare, education, manufacturing, finance and telecommunication.
    India is a founding member of GPAI and is expected to play a critical role in expanding the responsible utilisation of artificial intelligence for the world.
    In the past, the Indian Government has come forward with an AI policy draft and stated its willingness to build an ecosystem in the nation that focuses on a fast shift from the research and development (R&D) phase to the deployment and operation phase for AI systems that are trustworthy and all-inclusive. By working with other global nations, India will be a beneficiary of AI innovation and standardisation that are needed for this technology.
    The Government has also evaluated how investments in open datasets can be used to spur AI innovation and research and development that is free of issues like bias and to improve interoperability and use of standards.

India, being among the world’s youngest nation, having an edge on software technology and one of the largest growing economy, can lead the fourth Industrial revolution with proper investment and focus on the AI.