International Earth Day & Global Climate 2015-2019 Report
• International Earth Day 2020 marked its’ 50th anniversary. First time the event was celebrated indoors and through digital means due to the microscopic predator – COVID-19, Global pandemic.
• In one of the activities to mark Earth Day, WMO released its final report on the Global Climate 2015-2019.
Earth Day is a unified response to contemporary environmental crisis.It is celebrated to spread awareness about the preservation of the planet. In 2009, the United Nations designated April 22 as ‘International Mother Earth Day’.
Earth Day Network is a global environmental NGO. Growing out of the first Earth Day (April 22, 1970). It coordinates global Earth day celebration. Earth Day Network’s mission is to diversify, educate and activate the environmental movement worldwide.
The International Earth day recognizes a collective responsibility, as called for in the 1992 Rio Declaration, to promote harmony with nature and the Earth.
The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) is an intergovernmental specialized agency of the United Nations for meteorology.
WMO plays a leading role in international efforts to monitor and protect the environment through its Programmes. It collaborates with other United Nations agencies and National Meteorological and Hydrological Services.
WMO also supports the implementation of a number of environmental conventions and is instrumental in providing advice and assessments to governments on related matters. These activities contribute towards ensuring the sustainable development and well-being of nations.
Global Climate 2015-2019 Trends
It covers the period just after the Paris Agreement.
As per the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), the physical signs of climate change and impacts on our planet have gathered pace, reaching a crescendo in the past five years, which were the hottest on record.
The trend is expected to continue.Predictions show that further increases in global temperature are likely, especially over high latitudes and land regions, with slower ocean warming, particularly in the North Atlantic and Southern ocean.
Greenhouse Gases: CO2, CH4 and N2O reached new high levels and other key greenhouse gases in the atmosphere rose to new records, with CO2 growth rates 18% higher in 2015-2019 than the previous five years. CO2 remains in the atmosphere and oceans for centuries. It is expected that regardless of any temporary fall in emissions due to the Coronavirus epidemic, the world would continue to see general increase in emission.
Temperature: Global temperature continues to rise. 2015–2019 is set to be warmest five-year period. The average global temperature for 2015–2019 was 1.1 ± 0.1 °C warmer than pre-industrial (1850–1900) and is therefore the warmest of any equivalent period on record. The year 2016 is the warmest on record, and 2019 is likely to be the second warmest. Continental-average temperatures typically show greater variability than the global mean. The global mean sea-surface temperature for 2015–2019 was approximately 0.83 °C above pre-industrial levels and 0.13 °C warmer than 2011–2015.
Sea Level Rise: The total elevation of the global mean sea level since January 1993 has reached 90 mm. Over the five-year period 2014–2019, the rate of global mean sea-level rise has amounted to 5 mm/year, which is partly due to the strong El Niño. The contribution of land ice melt from the world glaciers and Greenland and Antarctica has increased over time and now dominates the sea-level budget. According to the Inter-governmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, 2019), the average rate of rise for 2006–2015 is 3–4 mm/yr., which is about 2.5 times the rate for 1901–1990 of 1-2 mm/yr.
Ocean Warming: The capacity of the ocean to absorb heat is a critical part of the climate system. The heat content in the years 2015–2019 was higher than in any previous year.
Seawater is Becoming More Acidic: The ecological costs to the ocean, however, are high, as the absorbed CO2 reacts with seawater and changes the acidity of the ocean. There has been an overall increase in acidity of 26% since the beginning of the industrial revolution. The ocean absorbs around 23% of the annual emissions of anthropogenic CO2 to the atmosphere.
Cryosphere: For all years from 2015 to 2019, the Arctic’s average September minimum (summer) sea ice extent was well below the 1981–2010 average. The period 2015–2019 was marked by a considerable retreat of the Arctic sea-ice.
For the period 2015–2019, data from the World Glacier Monitoring Service reference glaciers indicate an average specific mass change which is more negative than all other five-year periods since 1950, including the previous five-year period (2011–2015).
Precipitation: A comparison of the last five years, 2015–2019, with the five-year period 2011–2015 shows that the average precipitation totals were higher in the latter period than in the former in large regions in southern South and North America, eastern Europe, parts of tropical Africa and in most of Asia. In contrast, there was less precipitation in large parts of Europe, parts of tropical and southern Africa and the Greater Horn of Africa.
Extreme Event: Many of the major impacts of climate are associated with extreme events such as tropical cyclones, or events that can extend over months or years such as droughts. Heat-waves have been the deadliest meteorological hazard in the 2015–2019 period. Summer 2019 saw unprecedented wildfires in the Arctic region. The largest economic losses were associated with tropical cyclones. In the Indian Ocean, in March and April 2019, unprecedented and devastating back-to-back tropical cyclones hit Mozambique. Apart from these Incident of Cold events, Wildfires, Localized thunderstorm are on rise in unprecedented and irreparable way.
Earth Day 2020 will be far more than a day. It is a historic moment when citizens of the world rise up in a united call for our climate crisis and seize the enormous opportunities of a zero-carbon future.We are facing an even direr, almost existential, set of global environmental challenges, from loss of biodiversity to climate change to plastic pollution, that call for action.
Climate change exemplifies the biggest task to the future of humanity and the life-support systems that make our world habitable.At the end of 2020, nations will be expected to increase their national commitments to the 2015 Paris Agreement on climate change. The time is now for citizens to call for greater global ambition to tackle our climate crisis. Unless every country in the world steps up – and steps up with urgency and ambition — we are consigning current and future generations to a dangerous future.
PEPPER IT WITH
Earth Hour celebration, World wide fund for nature, Global footprint network