News Excerpt
Recently, Gender Social Norms Index (UNDP) reported that no country in the world has gender equality; 90% people biased against women.

The Gender Social Norms Index (GSNI) measures how social beliefs obstruct gender equality in areas like politics, work, and education, and contains data from 75 countries, covering over 80 percent of the world’s population.

Key Finding of the Report
•    No country in the world – rich or poor - has achieved gender equality. In sub-Saharan Africa one woman in every 180 giving birth dies (more than 20 times the rate in developed countries). In most regions adult women are less educated, have less access to labour markets than men and lack access to political power.
•    The world is not on track to achieve gender equality by 2030. Based on current trends, it would take 257 years to close the gender gap in economic opportunity. The number of female heads of government is lower today than five years ago, with only 10 women in such positions among 193 countries (down from 15 in 2014).
•    According to the index, about half of the world’s men and women feel that men make better political leaders, and over 40% feel that men make better business executives and that men have more right to a job when jobs are scarce. 28% think it is justified for a man to beat his wife.
•    Women make greater and faster progress where their individual empowerment or social power is lower (basic capabilities). But they face a glass ceiling where they have greater responsibility, political leadership and social payoffs in markets, social life and politics (enhanced capabilities). The higher the power and responsibility, the wider the gender gap — for instance, in case of heads of state and government it is almost 90%.
•    As economic power increases from employee to employer, and from employer to top entertainer and billionaire, the gender gap widens, with women representing only 21% of the world’s employers and 12% of the top billionaires. Only 5.8% of CEOS of S&P 500 companies are female. The overall employment of women by these companies might be close to parity, women are underrepresented in more senior positions.
•    Women today are the most qualified in history, and newer generations of women have reached parity in enrolment in primary education. But large differences persist in occupational choices. The share of female graduates in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) programmes is lower than 15% for most countries. Girls are less likely to study STEM subjects, while boys are a minority of those studying health and education.
•    Despite decades of progress in advancing women’s rights, bias against gender equality is increasing in some countries, with evidence of a backlash in attitudes among both men and women. The share of both women and men worldwide with moderate to intense gender biases grew from 57% to 60% for women and from 70% to 71% for men. Surveys have shown that younger men may be even less committed to equality than their elders.
•    For unpaid care work, women bear a bigger burden - on average spending about 2.5 times more than men do. This affects women’s labour force participation. In 2018, the global labour force participation rate was around 75% for men and 48% for women. Professional women mostly have two options for their personal partners — a super-supportive partner or no partner at all.

European Institute of Gender Studies, Gender Inequality, UNICEF