Earth’s Second Moon or Mini Moon (2020 CD3)
§    Earth has only one natural satellite called Moon which orbits around it. However, astronomers associated with the Catalina Sky Survey discovered the mini moon orbiting the Earth.
§    It is an asteroid approximately the size of a small car, probably originating in the asteroid belt between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter.
§    As the asteroid tried to zoom past the Earth, the planet's gravity pulled it close. It became a moon thus.
§    However, 2020 CD3 is a temporarily captured object which will eventually escape out of Earth's orbit. First mini moon observed by the Survey in 2006, has already escaped from Earth's orbit.
§    The Catalina Sky Survey, a NASA-funded project in Arizona, is designed to study “Near Earth Objects” which could potentially hit the planet if they get too close.

Kala Kumbh
§    “Kala Kumbh - Handicraft Thematic Exhibition” is being organized by the Ministry of Textiles. Exhibition is being organized to promote Geographical Indicator (GI) crafts and heritage of India. It is planned in major cities like Bengaluru, Mumbai, Kolkata and Chennai.
§    The GI tag is given to products of a specific geographical location or origin with certain unique quality which is attributable to its geographical origin. Such exhibitions will create awareness of the rich heritage of the country. It will also increase sale of handicraft products and contribute to the livelihood security of artisans.
§    The exhibition is sponsored by Export Promotion Council for Handicrafts (EPCH).EPCH was established under Companies Act and is a non-profit organisation, with an object to promote, support, protect, maintain and increase the export of handicrafts.

Henneguya Salminicola
§    Henneguya Salminicola is a parasite which lives inside the muscles of salmon and other fish.
§    Researchers at Tel Aviv University (TAU), Israel discovered that this microscopic cousin of jellyfish has no mitochondria.
§    Mitochondria is known as the powerhouses of the cell. It makes use of oxygen to supply energy to the cell.
§    Absence of mitochondria means that Henneguya Salminicola does not use oxygen for respiration. Its source of energy remains mysterious.
§    This discovery violates one of science’s assumptions that all animals use aerobic respiration.
§    Some other organisms e.g anaerobic bacterias like Actinomyces, Bacteroides, Clostridium that are found in anaerobic environments also do not use oxygen. We also have examples of anaerobic fungi and amoeba. But this is the first time an anaerobic animal has been found.

Bengal Eastern Regulation Frontier (1873)
§    The Bengal Eastern Frontier Regulations (BEFR), 1873 provides for The Inner Line Permit system (ILP).
§    Inner Line Permit is an official travel document that is issued by the concerned state government to allow travel of an Indian citizen into a protected area in a state for a limited period.
§    This was first framed by the British regulating the entry of outsiders in designated areas to protect Crown`s commercial interest in those areas. Later, in 1950 Indian Government continued with the ILP to protect the interests of the indigenous people.
§    Recently, the President of India amended the Bengal Eastern Frontier Regulations (BEFR), 1873 by using powers given under clause (2) of Article 372 of Indian Constitution. By this amendment, BEFR and hence ILP has been extended to Manipur also.
§    This will ensure that provisions of Citizenship Amendment Act, 2019 will not be applicable to Manipur as well in addition to Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland and Mizoram where BEFR were already applicable.
§    Sixth schedule areas of Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura and Mizoram have also been kept outside the ambit of CAA, 2019.

What is SyRI-and Identification Mechanism
§    In a first anywhere in the world, a court in the Netherlands stopped a digital identification scheme called SyRI (System Risk Indicator). The Court cited exclusion, data privacy and human rights concerns as the reason behind this verdict.
§    The court ruled that while using new technology to control fraud was acceptable, SyRI was too invasive and violative of the privacy guaranteed under EU laws and regulations.
§    SyRI (System Risk Indicator) was developed by the Dutch government. It was done to prevent abuse of government benefits by using an algorithm to identify people who were most likely to commit fraud and receive government benefits.
§    Government shared personal data about welfare recipients like taxes, vehicle registration, land record etc with a private company who analyzed that data and calculated risk scores. People with high risk scores could be investigated further.
§    This mechanism was selectively applied in low-income and immigrant neighbourhoods.
§    Civil society groups and NGOs moved to court alleging that the algorithm would begin associating poverty and immigrant statuses with fraud risk.
§    The court found that opaque algorithmic decision-making puts citizens at a disadvantage to challenge the resulting risk scores.

§    Government has started an inter-Ministerial funding program called Scientific Utilization through Research Augmentation Prime Products from Indigenous Cows” (SUTRA-PIC India) to research on “indigenous cows” and their products (like milk and ghee) for various medicinal, nutritious and agricultural uses.
§    Ministry of Science & Technology, Ministry of Ayush, Ministry of New and Renewable Energy along with many national institutions like Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR), Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) and Council of Scientific & Industrial Research (CSIR) are collaborating to ensure full utilization of benefits of indigenous cows.
§    Under this program funding will be provided to scientists/ academicians from Research Institutions, Academics, Grassroots Organizations and so on to carry out R&D work, technology development linked to capacity building at local level.

§    The two-day International Conference on Standardisation of Diagnosis and Terminologies in Ayurveda, Unani and Siddha Systems of Medicine (ICoSDiTAUS-2020) was held in New Delhi.
§    The Conference was jointly organized by the Ministry of AYUSH and the WHO.
§    The event was dedicated to standardisation of Diagnosis and Terminologies of Traditional Medicine.
§    The sixteen countries which participated included Sri Lanka, Mauritius, Serbia, Curacao, Cuba, Myanmar, Equatorial Guinea, Qatar, Ghana, Bhutan, Uzbekistan, India, Switzerland, Iran, Jamaica and Japan.
§    The conference concluded with adopting the “New Delhi Declaration on Collection and Classification of Traditional Medicine (TM) Diagnostic Data”.

§    ERONET (Centralized Software for Electoral Roll Management and Form Processing) is a web-based system for Electoral officials, in 14 languages and 11 scripts, to handle all processes related to maintaining electoral roll.
§    It automates the process of electoral roll management starting from elector registration. ERO-Net application is available pan India, to all citizens of India for enrollment/ corrections/migration from Electoral Roll.
§    The citizens now do not need to visit any election offices for any electoral process. Therefore, considerable reduction of time.
§    It is also expected to resolve the issue of the existence of multiple entries for the same elector.

Hunar Haat
§    Hunar haat is a skill fare organized by the Ministry of Minority affairs across various cities in India. Recently it was organized in the lawns of India Gate, New Delhi.
§    Artisans, including women artisans, from across the country showcase their skills at Hunar Haat. It has proved to be a “Mega Mission” of economic empowerment of needy master artisans and craftsmen.
§    This will result in employment opportunities to lakhs of artisans and craftsmen and people associated with them.
§    The central Government has also sanctioned 100 “Hunar Hubs” in different parts of the country. These hubs will provide training to master artisans, craftsmen and traditional culinary experts according to modern needs.
§    All these initiatives will also provide international recognition to the country's traditional legacy of arts and crafts.

Apiary on wheels
§    “Apiary on Wheels”, is a unique concept designed by The Khadi and Village Industries Commission (KVIC) for the easy and cheaper upkeep and migration of Bee Boxes having live Bee colonies. It is a platform which can carry 20 Bee Boxes from one place to another without any difficulty.
§    With a connected solar powered fan to control temperature and sugar drips to feed bees, this innovative mechanism keeps bees alive in extreme summer.
§    The Khadi and Village Industries Commission (KVIC) is a statutory body established by an Act of Parliament under the Ministry of Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises.
§    It is entrusted with responsibility to promote khadi and other village industries in the rural areas to achieve wider objectives of creating self-reliance amongst the poor and building up a strong rural community spirit.

School Health Ambassador Initiative
§    School Health Programme is an initiative under Ayushman Bharat scheme, jointly rolled out by Ministry of Health & Family Welfare and Ministry of Human Resource Development.
§    The School Health Ambassador initiative is an integral part of this programme.
§    Two teachers from each school, preferably one male and one female, will be selected as “School Health Ambassador”. They will teach students about the importance of health and preventive healthcare by organising culturally sensitive activity based sessions for one hour per week for 24 weeks in a year.
§    The first phase of implementation will be in all the public upper primary, secondary and senior secondary schools of aspirational districts. Subsequently, remaining districts will be taken up in the second year.
§    The National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT) has developed 24-hour curriculum, training materials for training of these ambassadors.

2 billion Kilometres to Safety Initiative
§    “2 billion kilometers to safety” initiative is a global campaign initiated by United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR). It invites people to act in solidarity and run, walk or cycle to achieve a cumulative total of two billion kilometres.
§    This is aimed to encourage people to support refugees by championing individual acts of solidarity. These acts, when taken together, acknowledge the resilience and strength of refugees.
§    Why 2 billion? According to UNHCR, on average, refugees are forced to flee travel approximately two billion kilometres every year to reach the first point of safety.
§    The office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) was created in 1950, during the aftermath of the Second World War, to help millions of Europeans who had fled or lost their homes.

Why we Have Leap Years
§    Year in which February has 29 days is called a leap year. A year is time taken by a planet to orbit its star once. A day is defined as the amount of time taken by a planet to rotate on its axis.
§    It takes Earth approximately 365 days and 6 hours (5 hours, 46 minutes and 48 seconds) to orbit the Sun. It takes Earth approximately 24 hours — 1 day — to rotate on its axis. So, our year is not an exact number of days. Ideally our year should have 365.25 days.
§    Because of that, most years, we round the days in a year down to 365. However, that leftover piece of a day doesn’t disappear. To make sure we count that extra part of a day, we add one day to the calendar approximately every four years.
§    So, if we do not count this extra 6 hours in 2017, 2018 and 2019, we have to add an extra 24 hours i.e one day to 2020, making it a leap year.
§    Leap years are important so that our calendar year matches the solar year — the amount of time it takes for Earth to make a trip around the Sun.
§    For example, say that July is a warm, summer month where you live. If we never had leap years, all those missing hours would add up into days, weeks and even months. Eventually, in a few hundred years, July would actually take place in the cold winter months.