News Excerpt
Finance Minister Nirmala Sitharaman had announced the government’s plan to fund 5 on-site museums, including the under-construction museum initiated by the Haryana government at Rakhigarhi. Other sites mentioned in the Budget — Hastinapur in Uttar Pradesh, Shivsagar in Assam, Dholavira in Gujarat and Adichanallur in Tamil Nadu.

Pre-Connect
•    The site of Rakhigarhi is one of the biggest five known townships of Harappan civilisation on Indian subcontinent; besides Harappa, Mohenjodaro and Ganveriwal in Pakistan and Dholavira in India.
•    It is a 5,000-year-old site that showcases continuity from the Harappan age to the present times. The village also has havelis that are a couple of hundred years old. It was excavated by Amarendra Nath, former director of the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI), in 1997. The ASI team unearthed a fire altar, parts of a city wall, drainage structures as well as a hoard of semi-precious beads.
•    In May 2012, the Global Heritage Fund, declared Rakhigarhi one of the 10 most endangered heritage sites in Asia.
•    It is one of the sites from mature Harappan phase.

Recent findings
Recent study of DNA from skeletal remains excavated from the Harappan cemetery at Rakhigarhi negates the theory of the Harappans having Steppe pastoral or ancient Iranian farmer ancestry. For details see current connect- September 2019.

Mature Harappan phase
    The Early Harappan Phase from 3300 to 2600 BCE; the Mature Harappan Phase from 2600 to 1900 BCE; the Late Harappan Phase from 1900 to 1300 BCE
    Some important mature Harappan sites are: Harappa, Mohenjodaro, Chanhudaro (Arranged in North to South order; All in Pakistan);
    Rakhigarhi, Banawali, Kalibangan, Dholavira, Lothal (Arranged in North to South order; All in India)
    Several typical features which are associated with the Mature Harappan phase are city and town, town planning, mud brick and burnt brick houses, script, long-distance trade, cubical weight, seals, brick ratio, ceramics shape, water management system (proper drainage) and specialization in art and craft.