News Excerpt
Government of India had decided to set up a major port at Vadhavan near Dahanu in Maharashtra with a total cost of ₹65,545 crore. It will be built on the landlord model.

Pre-Connect
•    Presently, there are 12 major ports in India
o    Deendayal Port (Earlier Known as Kandla Port), Gujarat
o    Jawaharlal Nehru Port Trust (biggest container port) (JNPT), Maharashtra
o    Mumbai Port
o    Vishakhapatnam Port, Andhra Pradesh
o    Chennai Port, Tamil Nadu
o    Mormugao Port, Goa
o    Kolkata Port, West Bengal
o    Pradip Port, Odisha
o    Tuticorin Port, Tamil Nadu
o    Cochin Port, Kerala
o    Ennore Port, Tamil Nadu
o    Panambur Port, Mangalore, Karnataka
About Vadhavan Port:
    It will be 13th major port of India.
    It will be among the top 10 container ports in the world.
    It will be constructed by formation of a special purpose vehicle with JNPT as the lead partner of 50% equity.
Significance
    Majority of the major ports in India work in the hybrid model of port governance.
    Under this model, therefore port trusts carry out terminal operation as well, this leads to a conflict of interest and against the objectivity.
    To boot competition, the component of neutrality is of utmost importance. It helps in assuring the fair competition between port service provider and the terminal operators.


Landlord Model
    In this model, ownership of the port rests with the publicly governed port authority while the operations are handled by private companies.
    In this model, Infrastructure is leased to private firms which provide and maintain their own superstructure.
    Private entities receive share of the revenue from the landlord.
    The role of landlord is limited to the public sector services such as award of bids for cargo terminals and dredging.


PEPPER IT WITH
Port Trust Board, Indian Ports Association, Port Development Plan, Article 364