National Education Day (11 November)
National Education Day is celebrated on November 11, to commemorate the birth anniversary of Maulana Abul Kalam Azad, the first education minister of independent India. He served as the education minister from 15 August 1947 to 2 February 1958.
The contribution of Maulana Abul Kalam towards the promotion of Indian education during the primitive stage of Independent India is immense. Under his leadership, the Ministry of Education established the first Indian Institute of Technology in 1951 and the University Grants Commission in 1953. He also laid emphasis on the development of the Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore and the Faculty of Technology of the Delhi University. On February 22, 1958 Maulana Abul Kalam Azad, one of the foremost leaders of the Indian freedom struggle passed away. For his invaluable contribution to the nation, Maulana Abul Kalam Azad was posthumously awarded India's highest civilian honor, the ‘Bharat Ratna’ in 1992.He was the founder of the Jamia Milia Islamia Institution in Delhi along with fellow khilafat leaders which has blossomed into a renowned University.
The educational institutions which provides the primary Education to the maximum number of children is the world largest single enterprise. With the involvement of a bit array of teachers, the biggest number of pupil, a large number of supervisors and administrators, this kind of institution is able to change the social value of human life with the help of education.
Why Education? Education works as a lever in raising financial and social status of the individuals. So, expenditure on education is regarded as useful investment not only by the economists, but also by the educationists. Economic condition of a country depends largely on the educational standards of its people since primary education is the foundation and should be the maximum or basic acquisition for the majority. Education is the root of modernization and human development. Education is a process of learning and it continues throughout the life. It promotes mobilization and encourages people to participate in development activities. Education makes people skilled towards jobs and creates productive efficiency.
Education System before Independence:
Every aspect of life including education in ancient India was influenced by religion. However, it is worth to mention that education aimed at many sided development of the personality of the student of course with a religious orientation. The concept, aims and ideals of education were correlated with the ideals of life. Teachers were usually priests, so they provided Liberal, Spiritual and Religious education. In ancient India the whole system of education ran on the specific system of institution called ‘GURUKUL SYSTEM OF EDUCATION’. The main sources of teaching in the ancient education were Vedic literature which represent the most important and intrinsic part of life of the Indian people. Gurukuls, students were empowered to get married and lead a family life. The modern system of education in India germinated in the attempt of Christian Missionaries to spread their religion. The first among them were the Roman Catholic Missionaries, who organized educational activities in the territory under the possession of Portuguese to churches or to the missionary offices.The new era witnessed the growth of a new economic pattern like, a commercial monetary economy, the development of new values, and education and new political pattern.
History of Modern education In India: The history of modern education in India begins when the East India Company was compelled to accept responsibility for the education of Indian with the new actrenewing the Company’s privileges for a further period of twenty years was passed on 21 July 1813. Under this Act the Board of Control was authorized to grant licenses to missionaries to open the schools in India. Regarding investment in education sector Clause (43) of the Charter Act 1813 was introduce in Parliament by former Advocate General in Calcutta and was passed after a slight modification. The Provision of educational development in India under British rule was important milestone for future development of western education in India.
National Education Movement: The most important commission for the general education development was the National Education Movement (1920-1922). By Government of Indian Act 1919, Dyarchy in the provinces got introduced, which was kind of dual government, while through Government of Indian Act 1935, concept of provincial Autonomy came into being. It shows that due to massive expansion of the provinces and rapid increased of population forced the British Government to establish the dual form of Government.
India became effective from 26th January 1950. Some of the articles in the constitution deal with education in the republic and touch the following five aspect of Indian education;
Free and compulsory primary education in the country – Article 45 of the Indian Constitution explain that the State shall endeavour to provide within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen
1. Religious instruction – Article 28(1), Article 28(2), Article 28(3) and Article 30 of the Indian Constitution safeguard the Secular Education. India is a secular state and every religion has got the right to popularize and spread its religious ideals.
2. Equality of Opportunity in Educational Institutions – Article 29 and 30 of the Indian Constitution guarantees the minorities certain cultural and educational rights to establish and administer educational institutions of their choice, whether based on religion or language.
3. Education of the Socially and Educationally Backward Classes of Citizens – Article 15, 17 and 46 safeguard the educational interest of the weaker sections
of the Indian community, that is, socially and educationally backward classes of citizens and scheduled castes and scheduled tribes.
4. Language and Educational Safeguard – Article 29(1) explains that any section of the citizens, residing in the territory of India or any part thereof having a
distinct language, script or culture of its own shall have the right to construe the same.