GS Paper - 2 (International Relations)

The Centre on 19 May 2022 said that it has supplied Covid-19 vaccines to Cambodia and Thailand under an initiative of the Quad group of countries that also includes the United States, Japan and Australia. The leaders of the Quad countries could discuss the vaccine supply plan when they meet in Japan.


  1. India separately shipped 325,000 doses of Covishield, a version of the AstraZeneca shot made by the SII, to Cambodia.
  2. The Quad was originally supposed to supply J&J doses made by Indian company Biological E Ltd to Southeast Asian and other countries, as a counter to China’s vaccine donations around the world.
  3. The Quadrilateral Security Dialogue (QSD), also known as the Quad, is a strategic security dialogue between India, Australia, Japan and the United States.
  4. The group met for the first time in 2007 on the sidelines of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN).
  5. It is considered an alliance of maritime democracies, and the forum is maintained by meetings, semi-regular summits, information exchanges and military drills of all the member countries.