GS Paper - 3 (Environment)

According to new research, ozone may be weakening one of the Earth's most important cooling mechanisms, making it a more significant greenhouse gas than previously thought. The research has also revealed that ozone in the lower atmosphere, in particular, contributed to warming in the southern ocean. The study has also shown that ozone is more than just a pollutant, but may be playing a significant role in climate change. The study was published in the journal, 'Nature Climate Change'.

What the study said

  1. The study has also revealed that changes to ozone levels in the upper and lower atmosphere were responsible for almost a third of the warming seen in ocean waters bordering Antarctica in the second half of the 20th century.
  2. Dr Michaela Hegglin, an Associate Professor in atmospheric chemistry and one of the study's authors, said, "Ozone close to Earth's surface is harmful to people and the environment, but this study reveals it also has a big impact on the ocean's ability to absorb excess heat from the atmosphere."
  3. These findings are an eye-opener and hammer home the importance of regulating air pollution to prevent increased ozone levels and global temperatures rising further still.
  4. The team used models to simulate changes in ozone levels in the upper and lower atmosphere between 1955 and 2000, to isolate them from other influences and increase the currently poor understanding of their impact on the Southern Ocean heat uptake.
  5. These simulations showed that a decrease in ozone in the upper atmosphere and increase in the lower atmosphere both contributed to the warming seen in the upper 2km of the ocean waters in the high latitudes by overall greenhouse gas increases.
  6. They revealed that the increased ozone in the lower atmosphere caused 60 per cent of the overall ozone-induced warming seen in the Southern Ocean over the period studied -- far more than previously thought.
  7. This was surprising because tropospheric ozone increases are mainly thought of as a climate forcing in the Northern hemisphere since that is where the main pollution occurs.

Flashback

  1. Ozone hit the headlines in the 1980s when a hole was discovered in the ozone layer high in the atmosphere over the South Pole, due to damage caused by chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), a gas used in industry and consumer products.
  2. The ozone layer is vital as it filters dangerous ultraviolet radiation from reaching Earth's surface.
  3. This discovery led to the Montreal Protocol, an international agreement to halt the production of CFCs.
  4. Ozone is created in the upper atmosphere by the interaction between oxygen molecules and UV radiation from the sun.
  5. In the lower atmosphere, it forms due to chemical reactions between pollutants like vehicle exhaust fumes and other emissions.
  6. Changes in ozone concentrations in the atmosphere affect westerly winds in the Southern Hemisphere as well as cause contrasting levels of salt and temperature close to the surface in the Southern Ocean. Both affect ocean currents in distinct ways, thereby affecting ocean heat uptake.