GS Paper - 1 (Art and Culture)

The Hoysala Temples of Belur, Halebid and Somnathapura in Karnataka have been finalised as India’s nomination for World Heritage List for the year 2022-2023, the Union Culture Ministry said on 31 January 2022. The ‘Sacred Ensembles of the Hoysala Temples’ are on UNESCO’s Tentative list since 15 April 2014, and stand testimony to the rich historical and cultural heritage of this country.


  1. The Permanent Representative of India to UNESCO Vishal V Sharma formally submitted the nomination of Hoysala Temples to UNESCO Director of World Heritage Lazare Eloundou.
  2. The site evaluation will happen in September/October this year and the dossier will be taken up for consideration in July/August next year.
  3. All the three Hoysala temples are protected monuments of the Archaeological Survey of India and therefore their conservation and maintenance will be done by it.
  4. The state government will ensure the conservation of state-protected monuments which are around these three monuments since it would add to the visual integrity of the place.


  1. The Hoysala architects used their profound knowledge of temple architecture in different parts of India, and these temples have a basic Dravidian morphology but show strong influences of the Bhumija mode widely used in Central India.
  2. The Nagara traditions of Northern and Western India and the Karntata Dravida modes favoured by the Kalyani Chalukyas
  3. Therefore, the Hoysala architects made considered and informed eclectic selections of features from other temple typologies which were further modified and then complemented with their own particular innovations.