GS Paper - 2 (International Relations)

Political turmoil in Afghanistan has compounded the completion of Turkmenistan-Afghanistan-Pakistan-India Pipeline, also known as Trans-Afghanistan pipeline incompletion for three decades. The major gas pipeline project is known as TAPI for Turkmenistan-Afghanistan-Pakistan-India--has yet to be completed despite being "in progress" for the past three decades.


  1. Earlier, the leaders of Afghanistan, Pakistan, Turkmenistan, and India in 2010, 2015 and 2018 discussed TAPI.
  2. The latest meeting over TAPI was held in 2018, in which several other projects including electric power facilities, a railway, and fiber optics were inaugurated.
  3. TAPI was expected to be inaugurated in 2020 but the construction of the project has remained unfinished so far despite the promises of funding by the Asian Development Bank.
  4. The TAPI project, which has an estimated price tag of USD 10 billion in 2018 endeavours to bring 33 billion cubic meters of Turkmen gas to energy-starved South Asia for 30 years via a 1,800-kilometer pipeline that will stretch across Afghanistan.
  5. After Turkmenistan was separated from the Soviet Union in December 1991, it sought to develop economic projects and transfer its most valuable resource to South Asian nations such as Pakistan and India through Afghanistan as originally envisaged under the TAPI project.