GS Paper - 2 (International Relations)

Israeli Prime Minister Naftali Bennett on 5 December 2021 urged world powers to take a hard line against Iran in negotiations aimed at reviving an international nuclear deal, as his top defense and intelligence officials headed to Washington to discuss the flailing talks.


  1. Israel has been watching with concern as world powers sit down with Iran in Vienna in hopes of restoring the tattered 2015 deal.
  2. Iran last week struck its own hard line as talks resumed in Vienna, suggesting everything discussed in previous rounds of diplomacy could be renegotiated.
  3. The original deal, spearheaded by then-President Barack Obama, gave Iran much-needed relief from crippling economic sanctions in exchange for curbs on its nuclear activities.
  4. But then-President Donald Trump, with strong encouragement from Israel, withdrew from the deal in 2018, causing it to unravel.
  5. Last week's talks in Vienna resumed after a more than five-month hiatus and were the first in which Iran's new hard-line government participated.
  6. Israel has long opposed the 2015 nuclear deal with Iran, known as the JCPOA, saying it didn't go far enough to halt the country's nuclear program and doesn't address what it sees as hostile Iranian military activity across the region.


  1. The Iran nuclear agreement, formally known as the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA), is a landmark accord reached between Iran and several world powers, including the United States, in July 2015.
  2. Under its terms, Iran agreed to dismantle much of its nuclear program and open its facilities to more extensive international inspections in exchange for billions of dollars’ worth of sanctions relief.