GS Paper - 2 (Health)

India’s population appears to be stabilising as the Total Fertility Rate (TFR) - an average number of children per woman - has further decreased to 2.0 in the latest health and family survey (NFHS-5) from 2.2 in the previous one (2015-16).

What the survey said

  1. The fertility rate has declined across the majority of the country’s states. All states except Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Jharkhand, and Uttar Pradesh in phase 2 and Bihar, Manipur and Meghalaya from phase 1, have attained a replacement level of 2.1.
  2. Overall Contraceptive Prevalence Rate (CPR) has increased substantially from 54% to 67% at the all-India level and in almost all Phase-II States and UTs with an exception of Punjab.
  3. The use of modern methods of contraceptives has also increased in almost all States/UTs. Besides, unmet needs of family planning have witnessed a significant decline from 13% to 9% at the all-India level and in most of the Phase-2 States and UTs.
  4. The sex ratio at birth for children born in the last five years indicating females per 1000 males also improved to 1020 during the current survey period from 991 during 2015-16.
  5. The percentage of women between 20-24 years of age who married before attaining 18 years of age also declined in the last five years.
  6. There was also a slight drop in the percentage of women aged 15-19 years who were already mothers or pregnant at the time of the survey.

Flashback

  1. The health ministry released the findings of the second phase of the fifth round of NFHS which includes 14 states and UTs.
  2. The first phase of the survey was conducted in 2020. The NFHS-5 was conducted through two years 2019-21 because of Covid-19 related disruption.