GS Paper - 3 (Environment)

Forty-five nations pledged on 6 November 2021 to step up protection of nature and overhaul farming to cut greenhouse gas emissions, the British hosts of the COP26 UN climate summit said. With a rising world population, an official statement issued in Glasgow said it was vital to curb global warming stoked by farming, deforestation and other land use changes that account for about a quarter of humanity’s planet-heating emissions.


  1. On 6 November 2021, the COP26 talks focused on ways to enlist nature to keep alive a goal of limiting the rise in global temperatures to 1.5 degrees Celsius (2.7F) above pre-industrial times, the toughest ambition of the 2015 Paris climate agreement. Average surface temperatures are already up about 1.2C.
  2. Backers include major economies led by the United States, Japan and Germany and developing nations such as India, Indonesia, Morocco, Vietnam, Philippines, Gabon, Ethiopia, Ghana and Uruguay.
  3. Greenhouse gas emissions from land use range from carbon dioxide released by the burning of forests to clear land for farming, to methane from cows and other livestock as they digest food.


  1. To safeguard the planet’s seas, which are suffering from over-fishing and warming waters, the COP26 statement said more than 10 new countries had signed up to a goal of protecting at least 30% of the oceans by 2030.
  2. They are India, Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Jamaica, St Lucia, Sri Lanka, Qatar, Samoa, Tonga, Gambia and Georgia.