GS Paper - 3 (Economy)

Five out of six multidimensionally poor people in India are from lower tribes or castes, according to a new analysis on global multidimensional poverty released by the United Nations. The global Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) produced by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and the Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative said this in its latest report on poverty.

In India

  1. In India, five out of six multidimensionally poor people are from lower tribes or castes.
  2. The Scheduled Tribe group accounts for 9.4 per cent of the population and is the poorest, with 65 million of the 129 million people living in multidimensional poverty.
  3. They account for about one-sixth of all people living in multidimensional poverty in India.
  4. Following the Scheduled Tribe group is the Scheduled Caste group with 33.3 percent -- 94 million of 283 million people -- living in multidimensional poverty.
  5. The report further said that 27.2 per cent of the Other Backward Class group- 160 million of 588 million people -- live in multidimensional poverty, “showing a lower incidence but a similar intensity compared with the Scheduled Caste group.
  6. Overall, five out of six multidimensionally poor people in India live in households whose head is from a Scheduled Tribe, a Scheduled Caste or Other Backward Class.

Report said about other countries

  1. Among the 1.3 billion multidimensionally poor people studied globally, almost two-thirds- 836 million- live in households in which no female member has completed at least six years of schooling.
  2. This exclusion of women from education has far-reaching impacts on societies around the world.
  3. These 836 million people live mostly in Sub-Saharan Africa (363 million) and South Asia (350 million).
  4. Seven countries account for more than 500 million of them: India (227 million), Pakistan (71 million), Ethiopia (59 million), Nigeria (54 million), China (32 million), Bangladesh (30 million) and the Democratic Republic of the Congo (27 million).
  5. The top five countries with the largest number of people living in multidimensional poverty are in India (2015/16) at 381 millions, Nigeria (2018): 93 million, Pakistan (2017/18): 83 million, Ethiopia (2019): 77 million, Democratic Republic of the Congo (2017/18): 56 million.

Flashback

  1. The global Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI), produced by the UN Development Programme (UNDP) and the Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative, also found that in nine specific ethnic groups surveyed, more than 90 per cent of the population is trapped in poverty. 
  2. In some cases, disparities across ethnic and racial groups are greater than across regions within a country.
  3. More than that, the disparities across the Index for ethnicity, is greater than that across all 109 countries, and all other variables tested.
  4. Besides income, the Index measures poverty using various indicators, including poor health, insufficient education and a low standard of living.
  5. The research for the report was conducted across 109 countries, covering 5.9 billion people, and presents an ethnicity/race/caste disaggregation, for 41 nations.